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Background: Accurately tracing nosocomial transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical to developing effective infection prevention policies. Given the high prevalence and variable incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the utility of traditional contact tracing is limited. We describe a nosocomial outbreak in which whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was pivotal to identifying the primary case. Methods: This study was conducted at a New York City academic hospital. The index case was identified on August 13, 2020, and the last case on September 9, 2020. Hospital policy required all inpatients to be screened for COVID-19 on admission by SARS-CoV-2 molecular amplification testing. All healthcare workers (HCWs) were required to wear masks and eye protection for patient care. After a patient (patient 1), who tested SARS-CoV-2 negative on admission, was positive on preprocedure screening on hospital day 9, contact tracing was initiated. Two patients (patients 2 and 3) and 13 HCWs with high-risk exposures (HREs) to patient 1 were quarantined and referred for testing. Additional surveillance testing was performed on 18 inpatients and 84 HCWs on the affected unit. Patients 2 and 3 and 3 HCWs (HCW-1, -2, and -3), only 1 of whom had a high-risk exposure to patient 1, tested positive. WGS was performed to further investigate this outbreak. Results: The outbreak variant (clade 20A) was found in samples from 6 patients and 2 HCWs. Patients 2 and 3 were roommates of patient 1 in the 2 days before patient 1’s positive test, and they did not consistently wear masks in the room. HCW-1 placed a peripheral IV in patient 1 the day before patient 1’s positive test without wearing eye protection. Four additional cases in this cluster (patients 4–6 and HCW-4) were identified by surveillance WGS of positive tests. A review indicated that patient 1 was located ~3 m (~10 feet) away from patient 4 in the emergency department (ED) for 6 hours on hospital day 1, when the admission SARS-CoV-2 test from patient 4 was not positive. No epidemiologic link was found to patient 5 or 6 or HCW-4. The specimen from HCW-2 was inadequate for WGS. The specimen from HCW-3 was not linked to this cluster. Conclusions: This complex nosocomial outbreak highlights the importance of WGS in understanding transmission events. Patient 4 was not identified by traditional contact tracing but was linked to patient 1 and was recognized as the primary case through WGS, having likely infected patient 1 in the ED. Based on these findings, we focused our corrective actions on more promptly isolating suspected COVID-19 cases in the ED, increasing inpatient masking, and improving HCW adherence to universal eye protection.
To understand how the different data collections methods of the Alberta Health Services Infection Prevention and Control Program (IPC) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) are affecting reported rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip replacements (THRs) and total knee replacements (TKRs).
Retrospective cohort study.
Four hospitals in Alberta, Canada.
Those with THR or TKR surgeries between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018.
Demographic information, complex SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared and then IPC and NSQIP data were matched with percent agreement and Cohen’s κ calculated. Statistical analysis was performed for age, gender and complex SSIs. A P value <.05 was considered significant.
In total, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients were compared. The complex SSI rate for NSQIP was higher compared to IPC (THR: 1.19 vs 0.68 [P = .147]; TKR: 0.92 vs 0.80 [P = .682]). After matching, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC, and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.0; κ = 0.48).
Different approaches to monitor SSIs may lead to different results and trending patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are consistently higher than IPC. If systems are compared at any point in time, confidence on the data may be eroded. Stakeholders need to be aware of these variations and education provided to facilitate an understanding of differences and a consistent approach to SSI surveillance monitoring over time.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Urine tumor DNA non-invasively detects minimal residual disease and infers tumor mutational burden in locally advanced bladder cancer prior to radical cystectomy, which may potentially enable the selection of patients for bladder-sparing treatment or facilitate personalized adjuvant immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Standard-of-care treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is radical cystectomy. The inability to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) non-invasively limits our ability to offer bladder-sparing treatment. We sought to develop a liquid biopsy solution via urine tumor DNA (utDNA) analysis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We applied uCAPP-Seq, a targeted sequencing method for detecting utDNA, to urine cell-free DNA samples acquired on the day of radical cystectomy from 42 patients with bladder cancer. utDNA variant-calling was performed non-invasively without prior tumor mutational knowledge. The overall utDNA level for each patient was represented by the non-silent mutation with the highest variant allele fraction after removing germline variants. Urine was similarly analyzed from 15 healthy adults. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was inferred from the number of non-silent mutations detected in urine cell-free DNA by applying a linear relationship derived from TCGA whole exome sequencing of 409 MIBC tumors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: utDNA levels were significantly higher in patients with residual disease detected in their surgical pathology compared to those who achieved a pathologic complete response (P = 0.002). Using an optimal utDNA threshold to define MRD detection, positive utDNA MRD significantly predicted the absence of pathologic complete response with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 81%. Positive utDNA MRD also portended significantly worse progression-free survival (HR = 7.4; P = 0.03) compared to negative utDNA MRD. Furthermore, we applied a linear relationship (Pearson r = 0.84; P < 0.0001) to identify patients with high inferred TMB who may have been candidates for early immune checkpoint blockade. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: utDNA MRD analysis prior to surgery correlated significantly with pathologic response and progression-free survival, which may help select patients for bladder-sparing treatment. utDNA can also non-invasively infer TMB, which could facilitate personalized adjuvant therapy for patients in the future.
Representation of under-represented minority (URM) faculty in the health sciences disciplines is persistently low relative to both national and student population demographics. Although some progress has been made through nationally funded pipeline development programs, demographic disparities in the various health sciences disciplines remain. As such the development of innovative interventions to help URM faculty and students overcome barriers to advancement remains a national priority. To date, the majority of pipeline development programs have focused on academic readiness, mentorship, and professional development. However, insights from the social sciences literature related to “extra-academic” (e.g., racism) barriers to URM persistence in higher education suggest the limitations of efforts exclusively focused on cognitively mediated endpoints. The purpose of this article is to synthesize findings from the social sciences literature that can inform the enhancement of URM pipeline development programs. Specifically, we highlight research related to the social, emotional, and contextual correlates of URM success in higher education including reducing social isolation, increasing engagement with research, bolstering persistence, enhancing mentoring models, and creating institutional change. Supporting URM’s success in the health sciences has implications for the development of a workforce with the capacity to understand and intervene on the drivers of health inequalities.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) are reported using 2 data sources: infection prevention and control (IPC), which surveys all THR and TKR using NHSN definitions and the Canadian International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CA) codes, and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses a systematic sampling process that involves an 8-day cycle schedule, modified NHSN definitions and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. We compared the similarities and discrepancies in THR/TKR SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP THR/TKR SSI data at 4 hospitals was performed. SSI data were collected between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018. Demographic information and complex and total SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared for both THR and TKR surgeries. To determine whether both data sources reported similar trends over time, total SSIs by quarter were compared. Univariate analyses using a t test for age and the χ2 test for gender for complex SSIs and total SSIs was performed. The Pearson correlation and the Shapiro-Wilk test were used to assess the THR and TKR trends between the 2 data sources. A P value of <.05 was considered significant. Results: Following the removal of duplicates and missing data, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, were compared. Age, gender, and other demographic parameters were not significantly different. Total THR and TKR SSIs per 100 procedures using NSQIP data were significantly higher than the same rates using IPC data: THR, 2.25 versus 0.92 (P < .05) and TKR, 3.43 versus 1.26 (P < .05). Both IPC and NSQIP data indicated increasing total THR SSI rates over time, but with different magnitudes (r = 0.658). For total TKR SSI, the IPC rate decreased, whereas the NSQIP rate increased over the same period (r = 0.374). When superficial SSIs were excluded, the rates reported between IPC and NSQIP data by hospital and by procedure type were more comparable, with trends toward higher rates reported by NSQIP for THR than for TKR: THR, 1.19 versus 0.68 (P = 0.15) and TKR, 0.92 versus 0.80 (P = .68). Conclusions: Different approaches used to monitor SSIs following surgeries may lead to different results and trend patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are significantly higher than the IPC Alberta orthopedic population predominantly as a result of increased identification of superficial SSIs. Because the diagnosis of superficial SSIs may be less reliable, SSI reporting should focus on complex infections.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip and knee replacements (THRs and TKRs) are reported using the infection prevention and control (IPC) surveillance system, which surveys all THRs and TKRs using the NHSN definitions; and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses different definitions and sampling strategies. Deterministic matching of patient data from these sources was used to examine the overlap and discrepancies in SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP superficial, deep, and organ-space THR/TKR SSI data collected 30 days postoperatively from September 1, 2015, to March 31, 2018 was undertaken. To identify patients with procedures captured by both IPC and NSQIP, data were cleaned, duplicates removed, and patients matched 1:1 using year of birth, procedure facility, type, side, date, and time. Positive and negative agreement were assessed, and the Cohen κ values were calculated. The definitions and data capture methods used by both IPC and NSQIP were also compared. Results: There were 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, with 1,798 matched patients: IPC (23.8%) and NSQIP (88.3%). Moreover, 17 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP, including 9 superficial and 8 complex by IPC and 6 superficial and 11 complex by NSQIP. Also, 7 SSIs were identified only by IPC, of which 5 were superficial, and 36 SSIs were identified only by NSQIP, of which 28 were superficial (positive agreement, 0.44; negative agreement, 0.99; κ = .43). Excluding superficial SSIs, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC; and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.00; κ = 0.48). Conclusions: THR/TKR SSI rates reported by IPC and NSQIP were not comparable in this matched dataset. NSQIP identifies more superficial SSIs. Variations in data capture methods and definitions accounted for most of the discordance. Both surveillance systems are critically involved with improving patient outcomes following surgery. However, stakeholders need to be aware of these variations, and education should be provided to facilitate an understanding of the differences and their interpretation. Future work should explore other surgical procedures and larger data sets.
For historic property types such as archaeological sites and historic buildings, data recovery is often the main part of mitigation plans offered by federal agencies with undertakings that will destroy part or all of a cultural resource. In theory, by extracting important information before destruction, we recover some part of a historic resource's cultural value. In some situations, however, data recovery is impossible or otherwise undesirable, and “creative” or off-site mitigation measures are necessary to mitigate adverse effects. In such circumstances, the Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation has accepted funding from federal agencies to create, implement, and enhance an online digital information system for cultural resources. This article describes the Washington Information System for Architectural and Archaeological Records Data (WISAARD) and provides an example of a federal agency funding WISAARD development as creative mitigation for the transfer of archaeological sites out of federal ownership. We discuss the benefits of such systems and address how their development meets preservation goals established by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation.
Mentalising has long been suggested to play an important role in irony interpretation. We hypothesised that another important cognitive underpinning of irony interpretation is likely to be children's capacity for mental set switching – the ability to switch flexibly between different approaches to the same task. We experimentally manipulated mentalising and set switching to investigate their effects on the ability of 7-year-olds to determine if an utterance is intended ironically or literally. The component of mentalising examined was whether the speaker and listener shared requisite knowledge.
We developed a paradigm in which children had to select how a listener might reply, depending on whether the listener shared knowledge needed to interpret the utterance as ironic. Our manipulation of requisite set switching found null results. However, we are the first to show experimentally that children as young as seven years use mentalising to determine whether an utterance is intended ironically or literally.
This chapter explores the potential and significance of digital broadcast archives (DBAs) and associated tools for supporting civic engagement with complex topics. It draws on a three-year Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded project, Earth in Vision, which worked with a sample of 50 hours of environment themed broadcasts drawn from over five decades of BBC television and radio archives. The project critically examines the potential of such broadcast archive content as a resource for the making and debating of environmental histories in the context of imagining and planning for environmental futures. It builds on the principles of co-production and social learning and aims to support more plural and dynamic accounts of environmental change. The overarching question the project addresses is: How can digital broadcast archives inform environmental history and support public understanding of, and learning about, environmental change issues?
To answer this question the team – a mix of cultural, historical and environmental geographers – addressed two aims. The first was to draw on a sample BBC archive content to write our own environmental histories (with broadcasting written into the script). Alongside the standard academic currency of academic journal articles (for example, Revill et al, 2018; Smith et al, 2018), the project resulted in the production of over 30 video interviews with media producers and presenters, and three multimedia interactive e-books. These e-books tell three environmental history stories using BBC digital and paper archives, looking at different aspects of the BBC's place and role as itself a maker of environmental histories. In turn the books examine: the iconic role of Sir David Attenborough in BBC environmental programming; the ways in which BBC programming produces and reproduces ideas of British landscape; and TV's role in shaping global environmental imaginations. These three stories illustrate the potential of DBAs (here the BBC broadcast archives) for telling new histories. These have been published as free e-books. The e-books link to a website holding a sample of cleared content and some resources aimed at encouraging visitors to play with this content, with the goal of supporting them as they tell and share their own environmental histories. We conclude that there is a whole range of exciting possibilities, especially for teachers, students, and academics, to work creatively with the releases of DBAs for public use. However, that potential is currently hampered primarily by the institutional and legal contexts of DBAs.
Leafy spurge, a noxious perennial weed, is a major threat to the prairie ecosystem in North America. Strategic planning to control leafy spurge requires monitoring its spatial distribution and spread. The ability to detect flowering leafy spurge at two biological control sites in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. Three flight missions were conducted on June 30, 2016, during the leafy spurge flowering period. Imagery was acquired at four flight heights and one or two acquisition times, depending on the site. The sites were reflown on June 28, 2017, to evaluate the change in flowering leafy spurge over time. Mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF) and hue, intensity, and saturation (HIS) threshold analyses were used to determine flowering leafy spurge cover. Flight height of 30 m was optimal; the strongest relationships between UAV and ground estimates of leafy spurge cover (r2 = 0.76 to 0.90; normalized root mean square error [NRMSE] = 0.10 to 0.13) and stem density (r2 = 0.72 to 0.75) were observed. Detection was not significantly affected by the image analysis method (P > 0.05). Flowering leafy spurge cover estimates were similar using HIS (1.9% to 14.8%) and MTMF (2.1% to 10.3%) and agreed with the ground estimates (using HIS: r2 = 0.64 to 0.93, NRMSE = 0.08 to 0.25; using MTMF: r2 = 0.64 to 0.90, NRMSE = 0.10 to 0.27). The reduction in flowering leafy spurge cover between 2016 and 2017 detected using UAV images and HIS (8.1% at site 1 and 2.7% at site 2) was consistent with that based on ground digital photographs (10% at site 1 and 1.8% at site 2). UAV imagery is a useful tool for accurately detecting flowering leafy spurge and could be used for routine monitoring purposes in a biological control program.
We report results of an 8-year process of stakeholder engagement aimed at building capacity in Dissemination and Implementation (D&I) research at the University of Wisconsin as part of the National Institutes of Health’s Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Starting in 2008, annual individual interviews were held with leaders of the Wisconsin CTSA’s community engagement core for strategic planning purposes. Interviews were followed by annual planning meetings that employed a facilitated group decision-making process aimed at identifying and prioritizing gaps in the translational research spectrum. In 2011, the stakeholder engagement process identified D&I as a primary gap limiting overall impact of the institution’s research across the translational spectrum. Since that time, our CTSA has created an array of D&I resources falling into four broad categories: (1) relationship building with D&I partners, (2) D&I skill building, (3) translational research resources, and (4) resources to support D&I activities. Our systematic process of stakeholder engagement has increased the impact of research by providing D&I resources to meet investigator and community needs. CTSAs could engage with leaders of their community engagement cores, which are common to all CTSAs, to adapt or adopt these resources to build D&I capacity.
Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression.
We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu.
We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education.
Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.
Numerous studies document female scholars’ underrepresentation in political science publications and citations, yet few examine graduate syllabi. In this study, we assess the impact of instructors’ individual characteristics (i.e., race, gender, and age) on which readings they assign. We use what is—to our knowledge—the largest dataset of graduate readings to date: the GRaduate Assignments DataSet (GRADS), with 75,601 readings from 840 syllabi in 94 US PhD programs. We report several findings. First, overall, instructors infrequently assign female-authored scholarship relative to the rates at which women publish. Second, instructors who are women, people of color, and those from more gender-equal countries assign significantly more female-authored readings than white male instructors and those from less gender-equal countries. Third, among women—but not men—older instructors assign more female-authored work. We suggest that women’s underrepresentation on syllabi may contribute to “the leaky pipeline,” which describes women’s attrition from academic careers.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Introduction: Patients with Heart failure (HF) experience frequent decompensation necessitating multiple emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. If patients are able to receive timely interventions and optimize self-management, recurrent ED visits may be reduced. In this feasibility study, we piloted the application of home telemonitoring to support the discharge of HF patients from hospital to home. We hypothesized that TEC4Home would decrease ED revisits and hospital admissions and improve patient health outcomes. Methods: Upon discharge from the ED or hospital, patients with HF received a blood pressure cuff, weight scale, pulse oximeter, and a touchscreen tablet. Participants submitted measurements and answered questions on the tablet about their HF symptoms daily for 60 days. Data were reviewed by a monitoring nurse. From November 2016 to July 2017, 69 participants were recruited from Vancouver General Hospital (VGH), St. Pauls Hospital (SPH) and Kelowna General Hospital (KGH). Participants completed pre-surveys at enrollement and post-surveys 30 days after monitoring finished. Administrative data related to ED visits and hospital admissions were reviewed. Interviews were conducted with the monitoring nurses to assess the impact of monitoring on patient health outcomes. Results: A preliminary analysis was conducted on a subsample of participants (n=22) enrolled across all 3 sites by March 31, 2017. At VGH and SPH (n=14), 25% fewer patients required an ED visit in the post-survey reporting compared to pre-survey. During the monitoring period, the monitoring nurse observed seven likely avoided ED admissions due to early intervention. In total, admissions were reduced by 20% and total hospital length of stay reduced by 69%. At KGH (n=8), 43% fewer patients required an ED visit in the post-survey reporting compared to the pre-survey. Hospital admissions were reduced by 20% and total hospital length of stay reduced by 50%. Overall, TEC4Home participants from all sites showed a significant improvement in health-related quality of life and in self-care behaviour pre- to 90 days post-monitoring. A full analysis of the 69 patients will be complete in February 2018. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate that home telemonitoring for HF patients can decrease ED revisits and improve patient experience. The length of stay data may also suggest the potential for early discharge of ED patients with home telemonitoring to avoid or reduce hospitalization. A stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial of TEC4Home in 22 BC communities will be conducted in 2018 to generate evidence and scale up the service in urban, regional and rural communities. This work is submitted on behalf of the TEC4Home Healthcare Innovation Community.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer typically have poor outcomes, with a median survival of ~16 months. Novel methods to improve local control are needed. Nab-paclitaxel (abraxane) has shown efficacy in pancreatic cancer and is FDA approved for metastatic disease in combination with gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel is also a promising radiosensitizer based on laboratory studies, but it has never been clinically tested with definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a phase 1 study using a 3+3 dose-escalation strategy to determine the safety and tolerability of dose escalated nab-paclitaxel with fractionated radiotherapy for patients with unresectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Following induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, patients were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and daily radiotherapy to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Final dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) determination was performed at day 65 after the start of radiotherapy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine patients received nab-paclitaxel at a dose level of either 100 mg/m2 (n=3) or 125 mg/m2 (n=6). One DLT (grade 3 neuropathy) was observed in a patient who received 125 mg/m2 of nab-paclitaxel. Other grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (11%), anemia (11%), and neutropenia (11%). No grade 4 toxicities were observed. With a median follow-up of 8 months (range 5–28 months), median survival was 19 months and median progression-free survival was 10 months. Following chemoradiation, 3 patients underwent surgical resection, all with negative margins and limited tumor viability. Of the 3 patients, 2 initially had borderline resectable tumors and 1 had an unresectable tumor. Tumor (SMAD-4, Caveolin-1) and peripheral (circulating tumor cells and microvesicles) biomarkers were collected and are being analyzed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The combination of fractionated radiation and weekly nab-paclitaxel was safe and well tolerated. This regimen represents a potentially promising therapy for patients with unresectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and warrants further investigation.
Transportation is critical to older adults’ ability to participate in social activities in their community. We examined the association between modes of transportation and restrictions in social activity (i.e. visiting with others, religious attendance, clubs and organised activities, and going out for enjoyment), with particular attention to the moderating effects of economic vulnerability. We used logistic regression to analyse data from 7,197 community-dwelling older adults from the 2011 wave of the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a representative sample of adults aged 65 and over in the United States of America. Economic vulnerability moderated the association between transportation mode and social activity restrictions. Findings suggest that even when economically vulnerable older adults have access to driving, walking or public transit, they may be at a higher risk for social exclusion than their counterparts with more financial resources.