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This paper proposes a procedure to improve the accuracy of the light aircraft 6 DOF simulation model by implementing model tuning and aerodynamic database correction using flight test data. In this study, the full-scale flight testing of a 2-seater aircraft has been performed in specific longitudinal manoeuver for model enhancement and simulation validation purposes. The baseline simulation model database is constructed using multi-fidelity analysis methods such as wind tunnel (W/T) test, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and empirical calculation. The enhancement process starts with identifying longitudinal equations of motion for sensitivity analysis, where the effect of crucial parameters is analysed and then adjusted using the model tuning technique. Next, the classical Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation method is applied to calculate aerodynamic derivatives from flight test data, these parameters are utilised to correct the initial aerodynamic table. A simulation validation process is introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the enhanced 6 DOF simulation model. The presented results demonstrate that the applied enhancement procedure has improved the simulation accuracy in longitudinal motion. The discrepancy between the simulation and flight test response showed significant improvement, which satisfies the regulation tolerance.
The present study aimed to determine thiamine intake levels and the association between thiamine intake, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. Participants were interviewed to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, current medications, medical and family history. The daily intake of thiamine was assessed by a 24-h recall. The mean age of the 34 700 study subjects was 42⋅9 years (sd 22⋅8, min–max: 1–80) and 19 342 (55⋅7 %) were women. The levels of thiamine intake were 1⋅126 mg (2016), 1⋅115 mg (2017) and 1⋅087 mg (2018) for women, which were equal to or only slightly above the recommended intake of 1⋅10 mg/d for women. The levels of thiamine intake from 2014–15 and 2016–18 significantly decreased. The estimated percentage of insufficient thiamine intake was 37⋅8 % (95 % CI 37⋅3, 38⋅4). Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed that thiamine intake was critically associated with lower risks of hypertension, MI or angina, type 2 diabetes, depression and dyslipidemia. The daily thiamine intake from food can reversal the risks of hypertension (OR 0⋅95; 95 % CI 0⋅90, 0⋅99), MI or angina (OR 0⋅84; 95 % CI 0⋅74, 0⋅95), type 2 diabetes (OR 0⋅86; 95 % CI 0⋅81, 0⋅93), depression (OR 0⋅90; 95 % CI 0⋅83, 0⋅97) and dyslipidemia (OR 0⋅90; 95 % CI 0⋅86, 0⋅95), respectively. Further works are needed to identify the effects of thiamine and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health. A preventive thiamine supplementation strategy should be adopted to target NCDs and mental health and risk factors associated with thiamine deficiency. The optimisation of NCD control and mental health protection is also a vital integral part of Korea's public health system.
We aim to determine the association between Fe status and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) during menopause. Records of 1069 premenopausal and 703 postmenopausal Korean women were retrieved from the database of the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V 2012) and analysed. The association between the MetS and Fe status was performed using multivariable-adjusted analyses, subsequently develop a prediction model for the MetS by margin effects. We found that the risk of Fe depletion among postmenopausal women was lower than premenopausal women (PR = 0·813, 95 % CI 0·668, 0·998, P = 0·038). The risk of the MetS was 2·562-fold lower among premenopausal women with than without Fe depletion (PR = 0·390, 95 % CI 0·266, 0·571, P < 0·001). In contrast, the risk of the MetS tended to be higher among postmenopausal women with than without Fe depletion (PR = 1·849, 95 % CI 1·406, 2·432, P < 0·001). When the serum ferritin levels increased, the risk of the MetS increased in both premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The margin effects showed that an increase in serum Hb and ferritin was associated with an increase in the risk of the MetS according to menopausal status and age group. Therefore, ferritin is the most validated and widely used Fe marker, could be a potential clinical value in predicting and monitoring the MetS during menopause. Further prospective or longitudinal studies, especially, clinically related studies on menopause and Fe status, are needed to clarify the causality between serum ferritin levels and the MetS that could offer novel treatments for the MetS.
The current cross-sectional study examined cognition and performance-based functional abilities in a continuing care senior housing community (CCSHC) that is comparable to other CCSHCs in the US with respect to residents’ demographic characteristics.
Participants were 110 older adult residents of the independent living unit. We assessed sociodemographics, mental health, neurocognitive functioning, and functional capacity.
Compared to normative samples, participants performed at or above expectations in terms of premorbid functioning, attention span and working memory, processing speed, timed set-shifting, inhibitory control, and confrontation naming. They performed below expectation in verbal fluency and verbal and visual learning and memory, with impairment rates [31.4% (>1 SD below the mean) and 18.49% (>1.5 SD below the mean)] well above the general population (16% and 7%, respectively). Within the cognitive test battery, two tests of delayed memory were most predictive of a global deficit score. Most cognitive test scores correlated with performance-based functional capacity.
Overall, results suggest that a subset of older adults in the independent living sector of CCSHCs are cognitively and functionally impaired and are at risk for future dementia. Results also argue for the inclusion of memory tests in abbreviated screening batteries in this population. We suggest that CCSHCs implement regular cognitive screening procedures to identify and triage those older adults who could benefit from interventions and, potentially, a transition to a higher level of care.
Network approach has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify network structures of remitters and non-remitters in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) at baseline and the 6-month follow-up.
Participants (n = 252) from the Korean Early Psychosis Study (KEPS) were enrolled. They were classified as remitters or non-remitters using Andreasen's criteria. We estimated network structure with 10 symptoms (three symptoms from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, one depressive symptom, and six symptoms related to schema and rumination) as nodes using a Gaussian graphical model. Global and local network metrics were compared within and between the networks over time.
Global network metrics did not differ between the remitters and non-remitters at baseline or 6 months. However, the network structure and nodal strengths associated with positive-self and positive-others scores changed significantly in the remitters over time. Unique central symptoms for remitters and non-remitters were cognitive brooding and negative-self, respectively. The correlation stability coefficients for nodal strength were within the acceptable range.
Our findings indicate that network structure and some nodal strengths were more flexible in remitters. Negative-self could be an important target for therapeutic intervention.
Background: Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) increase the length of hospital stay, healthcare costs, and patient mortality. Objective: We conducted a quality improvement (QI) approach with plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle to strengthen adherence to a central-line (CL) maintenance bundle and to reduce CLABSI rate in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of children’s hospital 1 (CH1). Methods: The baseline CLABSI rate per 1,000 CL days and the ratio of CL days to patient days (device utilization ration; DUR) were captured for 12 months preceding the intervention. Baseline process indicators were captured for 2 months preceding implementation, including hand hygiene adherence, sterile technique for dressing change and CL access, CL hub cleaning, dating of CL components and daily chlorhexidine bathing. A multimodal intervention of clinician training, bedside checklist, and poster reminders of best practices was implemented. Process and outcome measures were monitored over 12 months of implementation. Z-test was used to calculate statistical significance before and after intervention. Results: Among 46 clinical ICU staff trained on a CLABSI maintenance bundle, mean pre- and posttest knowledge scores increased from 63% to 86%. Staff adherence to each CL care bundle element improved significantly (P < .001) and sustainably over the intervention period: hand hygiene adherence increased from 54% to 82%; sterile technique for dressing increased from 60% to 94%; sterile technique for CL access increased from 51% to 97%; hub scrubbing increased from 52% to 93%; dating of CL elements increased from 63% to 85%; daily chlorhexidine bathing increased from 52% to 87%. During the first 9 months, the CLABSI rate and the DUR decreased from 5.8 to 3.7 and from 0.43 to 0.41, respectively. In the following 2 months, the CLABSI rate increased to 12.7 while bundle adherence remained high. A root-cause analysis identified inadequate environmental hygiene and use of multidose saline bottles for multiple patients as potential factors. A PDSA cycle to improve these elements (enhanced cleaning; single-patient saline bottles) led to a decrease in the CLABSI rate from 12.7 to 3.0 after these efforts. Conclusions: This is the first time CH1 has used quality improvement methodology to implement an HAI prevention enhancement, which proved effective at creating and sustaining adherence to a multimodal CL maintenance bundle and an overall decrease in CLABSI rates. A 2-month increase in CLABSI rates highlights the unique challenges faced in low-resource settings and demonstrates the need for IPC elements not captured in a typical CLABSI prevention bundle. The quality improvement methodology provided a structured approach to implementing change. This methodology will be used for additional patient safety improvements at CH1 and other Viet Nam hospitals interested in CLABSI prevention.
This paper reports on laboratory and field experimental results for controlled robotic manipulators operating on moving platforms with unmodeled dynamics. The aim is to validate theoretical predictions for the dependence on control parameters of an adaptive control strategy. In addition, the results provide insight into different discretizations of the continuous-time formulation, suggesting the most suitable discretization scheme for hardware implementation. The second set of experimental results, obtained from an implementation of the control framework for synchronization and consensus in networks of robotic manipulators, similarly validate theoretical predictions on the sensitivity to network communication delays.
The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop technologies that are best able to serve humanity. This will require advancements that go beyond the basic components of general intelligence. The term “intelligence” does not best represent the technological needs of advancing society, because it is “wisdom”, rather than intelligence, that is associated with greater well-being, happiness, health, and perhaps even longevity of the individual and the society. Thus, the future need in technology is for artificial wisdom (AW).
We examine the constructs of human intelligence and human wisdom in terms of their basic components, neurobiology, and relationship to aging, based on published empirical literature. We review the development of AI as inspired and driven by the model of human intelligence, and consider possible governing principles for AW that would enable humans to develop computers which can operationally utilize wise principles and result in wise acts. We review relevant examples of current efforts to develop such wise technologies.
AW systems will be based on developmental models of the neurobiology of human wisdom. These AW systems need to be able to a) learn from experience and self-correct; b) exhibit compassionate, unbiased, and ethical behaviors; and c) discern human emotions and help the human users to regulate their emotions and make wise decisions.
A close collaboration among computer scientists, neuroscientists, mental health experts, and ethicists is necessary for developing AW technologies, which will emulate the qualities of wise humans and thus serve the greatest benefit to humanity. Just as human intelligence and AI have helped further the understanding and usefulness of each other, human wisdom and AW can aid in promoting each other’s growth
In this chapter, we have introduced existing solutions in the literature aiming to improve the performance of ambient backscatter communication systems (ABCSs). We have first provided the reviews on several multiple access schemes that allows multiple transmitters backscatter data to the receiver. Then, solutions focusing on improving the communication range, bitrate, reliability, and robustness are presented in details. Finally, we have discussed challenges and future research directions to further improve the performance of ABCSs.
In this chapter, we have provided an overview of ambient backscatter communication systems. Firstly, we have introduced the fundamentals of modulated backscatter and its three main configurations, i.e., monostatic, bistatic, and ambient backscatter communication systems. Then, key channel-coding and modulation techniques in modulated backscatter communication systems are discussed. Two major types of backscatter communication channels and their link budgets are also introduced. Next, theoretical analyses and experimental measurements of backscatter channels are reviewed. Finally, we have discussed some research challenges of backscatter communication systems, especially ambient backscatter communication systems.
This chapter discussed open issues and potential research directions for future developemnt of ambient backscatter communication. Many emerging research directions are presented in this chapter such as full-duplex ambient backscatter, ultra-wideband backscatter, visible-light backscactter, and millimeter-wave backscatter.
The performance analysis for ambient backscatter communication systems is fundamentally different from that of traditional communication systems. The carrier signal of backscatter communication is opportunistically exploited from the existing active radio-frequency communication systems. As it is vulnerable to channel variations, different detection and encoding mechanisms have been proposed and analyzed to improve the system throughput or ergodic capacity. In this chapter, we have focused on the analysis of signal detection and bit-error rate (BER) performance for backscatter communication. We have reviewed the different system models for backscatter communication systems and various signal detection approaches under different resource and physical constraints.
In this chapter, we have introduced the fundamentals of self-sustaining wireless communication networks. We have first provided the overviews of conventional energy harvesting networks, i.e., wireless-powered transfer, wireless-powered communication network, and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, as well as their applications in the literature. Then, we have introduced ambient backscatter communications in terms of architecture, design, advantages, and limitations. Finally, we have discussed potential applications and implementation of ambient backscatter communication system networks such as smart world, biomedical, and logistics.
In this chapter, we first give a brief overview about the development of cognitive radio networks (CRNs), from traditional CRNs to the recent development of wireless energy harvesting for CRNs. Then, we discuss how to integrate ambient backscatter communication techniques to radio-frequency (RF)-powered CRNs, and present two fundamental models for this integration. After that, we discuss recent advanced models of RF-powered CRNs with ambient backscatter communication with more details about system design, communication protocols, and performance optimization problems. Finally, some open issues for the development of RF-powered backscatter CRNs are presented.