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The distribution of herbicide-resistant weeds such as waterhemp has resulted in a greater need for a more integrated approach to weed management, especially in U.S. soybean production systems. Previous research has shown harvest weed seed control (HWSC) to be an effective method of reducing the amount of weed seed returning to the soil. One form of HWSC is the use of impact mills to destroy weed seed exiting the combine during harvest. In 2019 and 2020, we investigated the efficacy and operating costs of the Seed TerminatorTM impact mill in five Missouri soybean fields that contained significant waterhemp infestations. Results indicated that 22% to 40% of the available waterhemp seed in the field at harvest drops to the soil surface because of shatter whenever the combine reel contacts waterhemp plants. Across all locations, an average of 94% of waterhemp seed exiting the Seed Terminator™ was substantially damaged and considered nonviable. Consecutive seasons of use of the Seed TerminatorTM on the same field in two of the locations resulted in a 96% to 97% reduction of waterhemp in the soil seed bank the spring following the second harvest. The estimated increased operating cost of using a Seed Terminator™ was $14.18 ha–1 compared to harvesting with a conventional combine alone. Engine load increased by 12.5%, fuel consumption was 11.3 L h–1 and 1 L ha–1 greater with the Seed Terminator™, but there was no reduction in productivity when harvesting with a combine equipped with a Seed TerminatorTM compared to a conventional combine. The use of impact mills could play a significant role in reducing soil weed seed banks in soybean production systems in at least the Midwest region of the United States in the future.
Field experiments were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine the effectiveness of electrocution on several weeds commonly encountered in Missouri soybean production using an implement known as The Weed Zapper™. In the first study, the effectiveness of electrocution on waterhemp, cocklebur, giant and common ragweed, horseweed, giant and yellow foxtail, and barnyardgrass was determined. Electrocution was applied when plants reached average heights and/or growth stages of 30 cm, 60 cm, flowering, pollination, and seed set. Electrocution was applied once or twice, at two different tractor speeds. Electrocution was more effective at the later plant growth stages. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that control of weed species was most related to plant height and amount of plant moisture at the time of electrocution. When plants contained seed at the time of electrocution, viability was reduced from 54% to 80% among the species evaluated. A second study determined the effect of electrocution on late-season waterhemp plants, and also soybean injury and yield. Electrocution timings took place throughout reproductive soybean growth stages. The control of waterhemp escapes within the soybean trial ranged from 51% to 97%. Yield of soybean electrocuted at the R4 and R6 growth stages was similar to that of the nontreated control, but soybean yield was reduced by 11% to 26% following electrocution at all other timings. However, the visual injury and yield loss observed in these experiments likely represents a worst-case scenario because growers who maintain a clear height differential between waterhemp and the soybean canopy would not need to maintain contact with the soybean canopy. Overall, results from these experiments indicate that electrocution as part of an integrated weed-management program could eliminate late-season herbicide-resistant weed escapes in soybean, and reduce the number and viability of weed seed that return to the soil seedbank.
Seed retention, and ultimately seed shatter, are extremely important for the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) and are likely influenced by various agroecological and environmental factors. Field studies investigated seed-shattering phenology of 22 weed species across three soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-producing regions in the United States. We further evaluated the potential drivers of seed shatter in terms of weather conditions, growing degree days, and plant biomass. Based on the results, weather conditions had no consistent impact on weed seed shatter. However, there was a positive correlation between individual weed plant biomass and delayed weed seed–shattering rates during harvest. This work demonstrates that HWSC can potentially reduce weed seedbank inputs of plants that have escaped early-season management practices and retained seed through harvest. However, smaller individuals of plants within the same population that shatter seed before harvest pose a risk of escaping early-season management and HWSC.
Non-dicamba-resistant soybean yield loss resulting from dicamba off-target injury has become an increasing concern for soybean growers in recent years. After off-target dicamba movement occurs onto sensitive soybean, little information is available on tactics that could be used to mitigate the cosmetic or yield losses that may occur. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in 2017, 2018, and 2019 to determine whether certain recovery treatments of fungicide, plant growth hormone, macro- and micronutrient fertilizer combinations, or weekly irrigation could reduce dicamba injury and/or result in similar yield to soybean that was not injured with dicamba. Simulated drift events of dicamba (5.6 g ae ha−1) were applied to non-dicamba-resistant soybean once they reached the V3 or R2 stages of growth. Recovery treatments were applied approximately 14 d after the simulated drift event. Weekly irrigation was the only recovery treatment that provided appreciable levels of injury reduction or increases in soybean height or yield compared to the dicamba-injured plants. Weekly irrigation following the R2 dicamba injury event resulted in an 1% to 14% increase in soybean yield compared with the dicamba-injured control. All other recovery treatments resulted in soybean yields that were similar to the dicamba-injured control, and similar to or lower than the nontreated control. Results from this study indicate that if soybean have become injured with dicamba, weekly irrigation will help soybean recover some of the yield loss and reduce injury symptoms that resulted from off-target dicamba movement, especially in a year with below average precipitation. However, yield loss will likely not be restored to that of noninjured soybean.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
Field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019 in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Tennessee to determine if cover-crop residue interfered with herbicides that provide residual control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp in no-till soybean. The experiments were established in the fall with planting of cover crops (cereal rye + hairy vetch). Herbicide treatments consisted of a nontreated or no residual, acetochlor, dimethenamid-P, flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone + flumioxazin, pendimethalin, metribuzin, pyroxasulfone, and S-metolachlor. Palmer amaranth took 18 d and waterhemp took 24 d in the cover crop–alone (nontreated) treatment to reach a height of 10 cm. Compared with this treatment, all herbicides except metribuzin increased the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. Flumioxazin applied alone or in a mixture with pyroxasulfone were the best at delaying Palmer amaranth growing to a height of 10 cm (35 d and 33 d, respectively). The herbicides that resulted in the lowest Palmer amaranth density (1.5 to 4 times less) integrated with a cover crop were pyroxasulfone + flumioxazin, flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone, and acetochlor. Those four herbicide treatments also delayed Palmer amaranth emergence for the longest period (27 to 34 d). Waterhemp density was 7 to 14 times less with acetochlor than all the other herbicides present. Yield differences were observed for locations with waterhemp. This research supports previous research indicating that utilizing soil-residual herbicides along with cover crops improves control of Palmer amaranth and/or waterhemp.
During the 2015, 2016, and 2017 growing seasons, a survey of 63 pastures in Missouri was conducted to determine the effects of selected soil and forage parameters on the density of common annual, biennial, and perennial weed species. Permanent sampling areas were established in each pasture at a frequency of one representative 20-m2 area per 4 ha of pasture, and weed species and density in each area were determined at 14-d intervals for a period from mid-April until late September. The parameters evaluated included soil pH, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) concentrations, as well as tall fescue density, forage groundcover density, and stocking rate. An increase of 1 unit in soil pH was associated with 146 fewer weeds per hectare, the largest reduction in weed density in response to any soil parameter. Increased soil pH was associated with the greatest reduction in perennial grass weed density, along with an average reduction of 1,410 brush weeds per hectare for each 1-unit increase in soil pH. Common ragweed, a widespread weed of pastures, could be reduced by 3,056 weeds ha−1 when soil pH was 1 unit greater. A 1-ppm increase in soil P was correlated with a decrease of 206 biennial broadleaf weeds per hectare. Perennial broadleaf weed density was reduced in soils with greater concentrations of P, K, and Ca. Additionally, for every 1% increase of tall fescue and forage groundcover, there was a decrease of 18 and 38 perennial broadleaf weeds per hectare. The results from this research indicate that the density of many common weed species can be reduced with higher soil pH and adjustments to soil macro- and micronutrient concentrations, especially P.
An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to determine the sensitivity of driftable rates of 2,4-D and dicamba with or without glyphosate on common ornamental, fruit, and nut species. Three driftable rates corresponding to ½, 1/20th, and 1/200th of the manufacturer’s labeled rate (1 × rate) of 2,4-D (1.09 kg ae ha−1), 2,4-D plus glyphosate (1.09 kg ae ha−1 plus 1.10 kg ae ha−1), dicamba (0.56 kg ae ha−1), and dicamba plus glyphosate (0.56 kg ae ha−1 plus 1.10 kg ae ha−1) were applied to apple, crabapple, dogwood, American elderberry, American elm, grapevine, hydrangea, red maple, pin oak, peach, pecan, eastern redbud, rose, red raspberry, strawberry, sweetgum, nannyberry viburnum, and black walnut plants. Visible estimates of injury were recorded 28 and 56 days after treatment (DAT). Plant measurements included leaf malformation, tree trunk growth, and shoot length. Across all species, the ½ × rate of 2,4-D plus glyphosate resulted in 61% injury 28 DAT, whereas the ½ × rate of dicamba plus glyphosate resulted in 51% injury. Across plant species and herbicides, ½ ×, 1/20 ×, and 1/200 × rates caused injury ranging from 3% to 100%, 0% to 66%, and 0% to 19%, respectively. Hydrangea was the least sensitive species; grapevine was most sensitive. Changes in plant measurements were dependent on the species and herbicide applied. Treatments at the ½ × or 1/20 × rate resulted in shoot length, leaf malformation, and trunk tree diameter differences for 11, 10, and 7 species, respectively, compared with nontreated plants. Collectively, the measurements and visual injury assessments indicated apple, red maple, peach, and pin oak were more sensitive to treatments containing dicamba, whereas black walnut, grapevine, and American elm were more sensitive to 2,4-D. Although the 1/200 × rates of 2,4-D and dicamba did not result in changes to plant measurements, obvious injury symptoms were observed, which could render these plants unsalable.
During the 2015, 2016, and 2017 growing seasons, weed and weed-free mixed tall fescue and legume forage samples were harvested from 29 pastures throughout Missouri for investigation of the nutritive value of 20 common pasture weed species throughout the season. At certain times during the growing season, many broadleaf weed species had greater nutritive values for a given quality parameter as compared with the available weed-free, mixed tall fescue and legume forage harvested from the same location. There were no significant differences in crude protein concentration between the weed-free forage and many weeds throughout the growing season. However, crude protein content of common burdock, common cocklebur, common ragweed, dandelion, horsenettle, and lanceleaf ragweed was greater than that of the corresponding forage sample at multiple collection periods. The digestible neutral detergent fiber (dNDF) content of all broadleaf weeds except lanceleaf ragweed was significantly lower than that of the weed-free forage at all collection periods. Conversely, large crabgrass had significantly greater digestible neutral detergent fiber levels than did the mixed tall fescue forage at all sampling dates. Dandelion and spiny amaranth had greater in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) content than did the forage for the entire growing season. Three perennial weeds—horsenettle, vervains, and late boneset—did not differ in IVTD levels as compared with the mixed tall fescue and legume forage at any collection date. For most summer annual weeds, the trend was toward greater digestibility earlier in the season, with a gradual decline and often lower IVTD by the late summer or early fall. The results of this study will enable producers to make more informed management decisions about the potential benefit or detriment a weed may provide to the overall nutritive value of the pasture system.
The use of cover crops in soybean production systems has increased in recent years. There are many questions surrounding cover crops—specifically about benefits to crop production and most effective herbicides for spring termination. No studies evaluating cover crop termination have been conducted across a wide geographic area, to our knowledge. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin for spring termination of regionally specific cover crops. Glyphosate-, glufosinate-, and paraquat-containing treatments were applied between April 15 and April 29 in 2016 and April 10 and April 20 in 2017. Visible control of cover crops was determined 28 days after treatment. Glyphosate-containing herbicide treatments were more effective than paraquat- and glufosinate-containing treatments, providing 71% to 97% control across all site years. Specifically, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1 applied alone or with 2,4-D at 0.56 kg ha−1, saflufenacil at 0.025 kg ha−1, or clethodim at 0.56 kg ha−1 provided the most effective control on all grass cover crop species. Glyphosate-, paraquat-, or glufosinate-containing treatments were generally most effective on broadleaf cover crop species when applied with 2,4-D or dicamba. Results from this research indicate that proper herbicide selection is crucial to successfully terminate cover crops in the spring.
Cover crops have increased in popularity in midwestern U.S. corn and soybean systems in recent years. However, little research has been conducted to evaluate how cover crops and residual herbicides are effectively integrated together for weed control in a soybean production system. Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate summer annual weed control and to determine the effect of cover crop biomass on residual herbicide reaching the soil. The herbicide treatments consisted of preplant (PP) applications of glyphosate plus 2,4-D with or without sulfentrazone plus chlorimuron at two different timings, 21 and 7 d prior to soybean planting (DPP). Cover crops evaluated included winter vetch, cereal rye, Italian ryegrass, oat, Austrian winter pea, winter wheat, and a winter vetch plus cereal rye mixture. Herbicide treatments were applied to tilled and nontilled soil without cover crop for comparison. The tillage treatment resulted in low weed biomass at all collection intervals after both application timings, which corresponded to tilled soil having the highest sulfentrazone concentration (171 ng g−1) compared with all cover crop treatments. When applied PP, herbicide treatments applied 21 DPP with sulfentrazone had greater weed (93%) and waterhemp (89%) control than when applied 7 DPP (60% and 69%, respectively). When applied POST, herbicide treatments with a residual herbicide resulted in greater weed and waterhemp control at 7 DPP (83% and 77%, respectively) than at 21 DPP (74% and 61%, respectively). Herbicide programs that included a residual herbicide had the highest soybean yields (≥3,403 kg ha−1). Results from this study indicate that residual herbicides can be effectively integrated either PP or POST in conjunction with cover crop termination applications, but termination timing and biomass accumulation will affect the amount of sulfentrazone reaching the soil.
In recent years, the use of cover crops has increased in U.S. crop production systems. An important aspect of successful cover crop establishment is the preceding crop and herbicide program, because some herbicides have the potential to persist in the soil for several months. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of cover crops to common residual herbicides used in soybean production. The same field experiment was conducted in 2016 in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, and repeated in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, and Missouri in 2017 to evaluate the potential of residual soybean herbicides to carryover and reduce cover crop establishment. Herbicides applied during the soybean growing season included acetochlor; acetochlor plus fomesafen; chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron; fomesafen; fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor; imazethapyr; pyroxasulfone; S-metolachlor; S-metolachlor plus fomesafen; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor. Across all herbicide treatments, the sensitivity of cover crops to herbicide residues in the fall, from greatest to least, was forage radish = turnip > annual ryegrass = winter oat = triticale > cereal rye = Austrian winter pea = hairy vetch = wheat > crimson clover. Fomesafen (applied 21 and 42 days after planting [(DAP]); chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron and pyroxasulfone applied 42 DAP; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor caused the highest visual ground cover reduction to cover crop species at the fall rating. Study results indicate cover crops are most at risk when following herbicide applications in soybean containing certain active ingredients such as fomesafen, but overall there is a fairly low risk of cover crop injury from residual soybean herbicides applied in the previous soybean crop.
This article describes a CDI outbreak in a long-term care (LTC) facility that used molecular typing techniques and whole-genome sequencing to identify widespread dissemination of the clonal strain in the environment which was successfully removed after terminal cleaning.
This study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Texas.
A recently hospitalized LTC patient was diagnosed with CDI followed shortly thereafter by 7 subsequent CDI cases. A stool specimen was obtained from each patient for culturing and typing. An environmental point-prevalence study of the facility was conducted before and after terminal cleaning of the facility to assess environmental contamination. Cultured isolates were typed using ribotyping, multilocus variant analysis, and whole-genome sequencing.
Stool samples were available for 5 of 8 patients; of these specimens, 4 grew toxigenic C. difficile ribotype 027. Of 50 environmental swab samples collected throughout the facility prior to the facility-wide terminal cleaning, 19 (38%) grew toxigenic C. difficile (most commonly ribotype 027, 79%). The terminal cleaning was effective at reducing C. difficile spores in the environment and at eradicating the ribotype 027 strain (P<.001). Using multilocus variance analysis and whole-genome sequencing, clinical and environmental strains were highly related and, in some cases, were identical.
Using molecular typing techniques, we demonstrated reduced environmental contamination with toxigenic C. difficile and the eradication of a ribotype 027 clone. These techniques may help direct infection control efforts and decrease the burden of CDI in the healthcare system.
Field experiments were performed in 2016 and 2017 in Missouri to determine whether interactions exist between PRE herbicides and seed treatments in soybean. The experiments consisted of a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangements of varieties, seed treatments, and herbicides. We selected two genetically similar varieties of soybean, one with known tolerance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides and one with known sensitivity. Each variety of seed received three separate seed treatment mixtures (STMs): (1) STM1, imidacloprid plus prothioconazol+penflufen+metalaxyl plus metalaxyl plus Bacillus subtilis+B. pumilis, (2) STM2, Pasteuria nishizawae plus thiamethoxam plus prothioconazol+penflufen+metalaxyl plus metalaxyl plus B. subtilis+B. pumilis, and (3) STM3, fluopyram plus imidacloprid plus prothioconazol+penflufen+metalaxyl plus metalaxyl plus B. subtilis+B. pumilis. Chlorimuron-ethyl+flumioxazin+pyroxasulfone, chlorimuron-ethyl+flumioxazin+metribuzin, and chlorimuron-ethyl+sulfentrazone were applied PRE to each variety and seed treatment combination at 1× and 2× the labeled use rate. Chlorimuron-ethyl+sulfentrazone treatment at the 2× rate resulted in greater injury of 8% and 14% to the sensitive variety than the tolerant in 2016 and 2017, respectively; this was the highest injury observed from any herbicide treatment in either year. In 2017, chlorimuron-ethyl+sulfentrazone resulted in the greatest height reductions in both varieties, but this reduction was more evident in the sensitive (19%) than in the tolerant (6%) variety. Overall, yield differences between the two varieties were not consistent between years, and for both varieties, the sulfentrazone-containing treatments resulted in the highest yield losses. The results of this research indicate that there is a larger interaction between herbicides and varieties than there is between herbicides and seed treatments, or seed treatments and varieties.
Research was conducted from 2015 to 2017 to investigate the potential for 2,4-D and multiple herbicide resistance in a waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] population from Missouri (designated MO-Ren). In the field, visual control of the MO-Ren population with 0.56 to 4.48 kg 2,4-D ha−1 ranged from 26% to 77% in 2015 and from 15% to 55% in 2016. The MO-Ren population was highly resistant to chlorimuron, with visual control never exceeding 7% either year. Estimates of the 2,4-D dose required to provide 50% visual control (I50) of the MO-Ren population were 1.44 kg ha−1 compared with only 0.47 kg 2,4-D ha−1 for the susceptible population. Based on comparisons to a susceptible population in dose–response experiments, the MO-Ren population was approximately 3-fold resistant to 2,4-D, and 7-, 7-, 22-, and 14-fold resistant to atrazine, fomesafen, glyphosate, and mesotrione, respectively. Dicamba and glufosinate were the only two herbicides that provided effective control of the MO-Ren population in these experiments. Examinations of multiple herbicide resistance at the individual plant level revealed that 16% of the plants of the MO-Ren population contained genes stacked for six-way herbicide resistance, and only 1% of plants were classified as resistant to a single herbicide (glyphosate). Results from these experiments confirm that the MO-Ren A. tuberculatus population is resistant to 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorimuron, fomesafen, glyphosate, and mesotrione, making this population the third 2,4-D–resistant A. tuberculatus population identified in the United States, and the first population resistant to six different herbicidal modes of action.
Soybean consultants from Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee were surveyed in 2016 to assess weed management practices and the prevalence of herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern U.S. soybean production. The consultants surveyed represented 13%, 28%, 8%, 16%, and 5% of the total soybean area planted in Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Of the total scouted area, 78% of the consultants said their growers planted glyphosate-resistant soybean in 2016, with 18% planting glufosinate-resistant (LibertyLink®), primarily due to familiarity with and cost of the technology. Although 94% of the consultants determined that glufosinate was most effective on killing Palmer amaranth, the primary concern associated with controlling herbicide-resistant weeds was the associated cost, followed by return profit and time constraints. Palmer amaranth, morningglory species, horseweed, barnyardgrass, and Italian ryegrass were the five most problematic weeds in soybean across the five states. Palmer amaranth was the most problematic and important weed in each state individually. The increased concern (77% of consultants) with this species was attributed to the rising concern with and occurrence of protoporphyrinogen oxidase–resistant Palmer amaranth. Consultants were of the opinion that more research was needed on cover crops and the new traited technologies in order to improve weed management in soybean.
Research was conducted from 2011 to 2015 to determine the effect of herbicide strategy on efficacy and evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds in a continuous glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant (GDr) soybean system. The nine herbicide strategies included sequential applications of glyphosate only, glyphosate plus dicamba with or without acetochlor, PRE application of residual herbicides with POST glyphosate or non-glyphosate herbicides, and their biennial rotation with one another. Giant foxtail and horseweed were the least problematic during all growing seasons. An increase in horseweed was observed by the end of the experiment especially in the plots where POST glyphosate was not used with PRE application of residual herbicides. Giant ragweed evolved resistance to glyphosate over a 4-yr period of selection with strategies that predominantly included PRE and POST glyphosate. Herbicide use strategies that included glyphosate-only and PRE application of residual herbicides fb POST glyphosate annually or in a biennial rotation were ineffective in controlling giant ragweed and glyphosate-resistant (GR) common waterhemp. Over the years, application of PRE herbicide mixtures before POST glyphosate application improved weed control and soybean yields compared with the glyphosate-only strategy. During all growing seasons, the greatest yield and reduction in total weed density before harvest was provided by herbicide use strategies that included glyphosate plus dicamba annually or in a biennial rotation regardless of the inclusion of acetochlor POST. Dicamba proved to be a valuable addition to improve the control of GR weeds. GDr soybean will provide growers with a new option for managing resistant weeds, but it needs to be used with caution, as multiple resistance in weeds, including waterhemp and giant ragweed, is already widespread.
A field study was conducted for the 2014 and 2015 growing season in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee to determine the effect of cereal rye and either oats, radish, or annual ryegrass on the control of Amaranthus spp. when integrated with comprehensive herbicide programs in glyphosate-resistant and glufosinate-resistant soybean. Amaranthus species included redroot pigweed, waterhemp, and Palmer amaranth. The two herbicide programs included were: a PRE residual herbicide followed by POST application of foliar and residual herbicide (PRE/POST); or PRE residual herbicide followed by POST application of foliar and residual herbicide, followed by another POST application of residual herbicide (PRE/POST/POST). Control was not affected by type of soybean resistance trait. At the end of the season, herbicides controlled 100 and 96% of the redroot pigweed and Palmer amaranth, respectively, versus 49 and 29% in the absence of herbicides, averaged over sites and other factors. The PRE/POST and PRE/POST/POST herbicide treatments controlled 83 and 90% of waterhemp at the end of the season, respectively, versus 14% without herbicide. Cover crop treatments affected control of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth and soybean yield, only in the absence of herbicides. The rye cover crop consistently reduced Amaranthus spp. density in the absence of herbicides compared to no cover treatment.
Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Columbia and Moberly, Missouri to determine the effects of cereal rye, Italian ryegrass, winter wheat, winter oat, crimson clover, Austrian winterpea, hairy vetch, oilseed radish, and cereal rye plus hairy vetch on winter and summer annual weed emergence in soybean. For comparison purposes, each experiment in each year included a Fall PRE, Spring PRE without residual, and Spring PRE residual herbicide programs. Cereal rye and cereal rye plus hairy vetch reduced winter annual weed emergence by 72 and 68%, respectively, but were not comparable to the Fall PRE which reduced winter annual weed emergence by 99%. The following spring, early-season waterhemp emergence was similar among treatments of cereal rye, cereal rye plus hairy vetch, and the Spring PRE residual herbicide program. In contrast, all cover crop species other than Italian ryegrass reduced late season waterhemp emergence between 21 and 40%, but were not comparable to the Spring PRE residual herbicide program, which reduced late season waterhemp emergence by 97%. All other summer annual weeds excluding waterhemp showed a similar response among cover crop and herbicide treatments. Overall, results from this experiment indicate that certain cover crops are able to suppress winter and summer annual weed emergence, but not to the extent of soil-applied residual herbicides.