To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To describe the frequency, characteristics, and exposure associated with influenza in hospitalized patients in a Toronto hospital
Prospective data collected for consenting patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza and a retrospective review of infection control charts for roommates of cases over 3 influenza seasons
Of the 661 patients with influenza (age range: 1 week–103 years), 557 were placed on additional precautions upon admission. Of 104 with symptoms detected after admission, 57 cases were community onset and 47 were nosocomial (10 nosocomial were part of outbreaks). A total of 78 cases were detected after admission exposing 143 roommates. Among roommates tested for influenza after exposure, no roommates of community-onset cases and 2 of 16 roommates of nosocomial cases were diagnosed with influenza. Of 637 influenza-infected patients, 25% and 57% met influenza-like illness definitions from the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), respectively, and 70.3% met the Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee (PIDAC) febrile respiratory illness definition. Among the 56 patients with community-onset influenza detected after admission, only 13%, 23%, and 34%, met PHAC, CDC, and PIDAC classifications, respectively.
In a setting with extensive screening and testing for influenza, 1 in 6 patients with influenza was not diagnosed until patients and healthcare workers had been exposed for >24 hours. Only 30% of patients with community-onset influenza detected after admission met the Ontario definition intended to identify cases, hampering efforts to prevent patient and healthcare worker exposures and reinforcing the need for prevention through vaccination.
To evaluate invasiveness index as a potential predictor of spine surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal fusion, revision fusion, or laminectomy.
Retrospective cohort study.
Single, large, academic medical center.
Adults undergoing spinal fusion, revision fusion, or laminectomy.
Data were obtained from electronic hospital databases; cases of SSI were extracted from the infection control database using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions. For each case, an invasiveness index, determined by surgical approach, procedure, and number of spine levels treated, was calculated using current procedural terminology (CPT) billing codes. Statistical analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.
In total, 3,143 patients met inclusion criteria, and 43 of these developed SSI. Multivariate regression showed that advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.005–1.05, for each year of life) and invasiveness index (medium invasiveness index OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 1.92–14.96; high invasiveness index OR, 14.1; 95% CI, 4.38–45.43) were significant predictors of infection. In subgroup analyses of spinal fusion patients, morbid obesity (OR, 2.542; 95% CI, 1.08–5.99), trauma (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.05–5.55), and invasiveness index (medium invasiveness index OR, 5.39; 95% CI, 1.56–18.61; high invasiveness index OR, 13.44; 95% CI, 3.28–55.01) were significant predictors of SSI. Models containing invasiveness index were compared to NHSN models and demonstrated similar performance.
Invasiveness index is a predictor of SSI after spinal fusion and performs similarly to NHSN models. Invasiveness index shows promise as a potential risk stratification tool that is easily calculated and is available preoperatively.
In this work, the growth and characterization of GaAsSbN epilayers nearly lattice matched to GaAs, grown in an elemental solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system with a RF plasma nitrogen source, are discussed. The Sb and N compositions of the nearly lattice matched layers are 2.6% and 6.8%, respectively, as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. The layers are found to be fully strained as evidenced by the presence of Pendellosung fringes on the x-ray diffraction spectra.
Effects of in-situ and ex-situ annealing on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) characteristics are discussed. The 10 K PL peak energy of 1 eV with a FWHM of 18 meV has been achieved on ex-situ annealed samples in N ambient. The temperature dependence of PL peak energy exhibits “S-shaped” behavior in the low temperature regime, indicative of the presence of localized excitons. Raman spectroscopy analysis has been carried out to determine the local structural changes on annealing.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.