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To evaluate the effects of handshake antimicrobial stewardship on medicine floors at a large tertiary care hospital.
Retrospective observational study.
1,278-bed academic hospital.
Adults admitted to non-ICU medicine services.
A handshake stewardship team consisting of an infectious diseases (ID) physician and pharmacist reviewed charts of patients receiving antimicrobials on medicine floors without a formal ID consult. Recommendations were communicated in-person to providers and acceptance rates were examined with descriptive statistics. Additional data regarding program perception among providers were obtained via surveys. Antibiotic usage trends were extracted from National Healthcare Safety Network Antimicrobial Use option data and evaluated using an interrupted time-series analysis pre- and post-intervention.
The overall acceptance rate of interventions was 80%, the majority being recommendations either to discontinue (37%) or de-escalate therapy (28%). Medical residents and hospitalists rated the intervention favorably with 90% reporting recommendations were helpful all or most of the time. There was a statistically significant decrease in vancomycin (78 vs 70 DOT/1,000 d present (DP), p = 0.002) and meropenem (24 vs 17 DOT/1,000 DP, p = 0.007) usage and a statistically significant increase in amoxicillin-clavulanate usage (11 vs 15 DOT/1,000 DP, p < 0.001). Overall antibiotic usage remained unchanged by the intervention, though pre-intervention there was a nonsignificant overall increasing trend while post-intervention there was a nonsignificant decreasing trend in overall usage. There was no change in in-hospital mortality.
The addition of handshake stewardship with adult medicine services was favorably viewed by participants and led to shifts in antibiotic usage.
We implemented 2 interventions to improve utilization and contamination at our institution: kits to improve appropriate sample collection and an electronic order alert displaying appropriate indications of fungal blood cultures. An electronic order alert when ordering fungal blood cultures was associated with decreased utilization without decrease in positivity rate.
Background: Handshake stewardship is a variation of prospective audit and feedback that entails the individual review of patient charts by a physician–pharmacist collaborative team followed by in-person feedback to primary teams to communicate recommendations regarding optimal antibiotic use. Handshake stewardship has been shown to have durable effects in reducing antimicrobial use in children’s hospitals, but data regarding this intervention in adult hospitals are scarce. In particular, no data are available regarding the impact of this type of stewardship intervention on adult surgical units. We examined the effect of a handshake stewardship intervention at a large academic medical center on adult trauma and acute- and critical-care surgery (ACCS) units. Methods: The antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) at Barnes-Jewish Hospital launched a handshake stewardship intervention targeting surgical floor teams in January 2022. These teams included the ACCS teams and a number of other surgical services. The intervention consisted of once weekly reviews and in-person rounds with the surgical floor teams along with the establishment of a 7 day per week “hotline” in which the surgical teams could contact an ID physician or pharmacist with questions regarding antibiotic use. Patients with formal ID consultations were not reviewed. Recommendations were tracked including the type, the antibiotic targeted, and recommendation acceptance or rejection. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze these results. At the end of 12 months, antibiotic use in the floors covered by the ACCS teams were pulled from the NHSN AU module to perform an interrupted time-series analysis 12 months before and after the intervention. Results: Overall, 3,127 charts were reviewed during the intervention period and 637 recommendations were made to all the surgical teams. Opportunities for antibiotic use optimization were identified in ~20% of antibiotic orders. The overall recommendation acceptance rate was 71%. In the ACCS units, 272 interventions were recommended, with an acceptance rate of 67%. The most frequent recommendations were for antibiotic discontinuation (37%), antibiotic de-escalation (17%), shortening duration (12%), and broadening coverage (12%). Antibiotic usage trends (Fig. 1) on the ACCS floors, which were showing a nonsignificant increasing trend (P = .70) before and after the intervention, now show a nonsignificant decreasing trend (P = .20). Conclusions: There are numerous opportunities for antibiotic optimization on adult surgical floors. Although handshake stewardship is a labor-intensive intervention, preliminary findings after 1 year show that, on ACCS units, there may be a trend toward a sustained impact.
Early administration of antibiotics in sepsis is associated with improved patient outcomes, but safe and generalizable approaches to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics after suspected sepsis events are unknown.
We used a modified Delphi approach to identify safety criteria for an opt-out protocol to guide de-escalation or discontinuation of antibiotic therapy after 72 hours in non-ICU patients with suspected sepsis. An expert panel with expertise in antimicrobial stewardship and hospital epidemiology rated 48 unique criteria across 3 electronic survey rating tools. Criteria were rated primarily based on their impact on patient safety and feasibility for extraction from electronic health record review. The 48 unique criteria were rated by anonymous electronic survey tools, and the results were fed back to the expert panel participants. Consensus was achieved to either retain or remove each criterion.
After 3 rounds, 22 unique criteria remained as part of the opt-out safety checklist. These criteria included high-risk comorbidities, signs of severe illness, lack of cultures during sepsis work-up or antibiotic use prior to blood cultures, or ongoing signs and symptoms of infection.
The modified Delphi approach is a useful method to achieve expert-level consensus in the absence of evidence suifficient to provide validated guidance. The Delphi approach allowed for flexibility in development of an opt-out trial protocol for sepsis antibiotic de-escalation. The utility of this protocol should be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.
We conducted a retrospective review of a hybrid antimicrobial restriction process demonstrating adherence to appropriate use criteria in 72% of provisional-only orders, in 100% of provisional orders followed by ID orders, and in 97% of ID-initiated orders. Therapy interruptions occurred in 24% of provisional orders followed by ID orders.
Background: Echinocandins are used as first-line therapy for suspected and confirmed Candida spp, and its indiscriminate use may drive selection for echinocandin resistance. We evaluated patterns of use of micafungin to identify opportunities for antifungal stewardship. Methods: We identified all micafungin completed orders and microbiological test result data from July 2018 to November 2020 among hospitalized patients in Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Continuous micafungin courses with <48 hours of interruption were considered independent courses. We evaluated micafungin use in 3 scenarios in which its use may be unnecessary: (1) patients with blood cultures negative for Candida spp, (2) patients with recovery of yeast or Candida spp from tracheal aspirates, and (3) patients with recovery of yeast or Candida spp from urine cultures. We only included micafungin courses if they were initiated within 5 days of blood culture collection or up to 4 days after tracheal or urine culture collection to account for incubation and decision to initiate treatment. Results: We found 3,381 micafungin courses in 3,287 admissions. Of these, 2,532 courses had blood culture collection around micafungin initiation and were included in the first analysis: 1,879 (74%) were negative, 149 (6%) had Candida spp isolated in the blood, and 504 (20%) had positive blood cultures for other organisms. Micafungin was given for a median duration of 3 days (IQR, 2–7) to those with negative blood cultures and for 3 days (IQR, 1–5) to those with positive blood cultures without candidemia (p < 0.001), and prolonged durations of more than 5 days was seen in 768/1879 (41%) and 143/504 (28%) of courses, respectively (p <0.001). A total of 487 micafungin courses were initiated after tracheal aspirate culture collection. Those with yeast isolated (n = 100, 21%) received similar micafungin duration compared to those that had no yeast isolated [3 (2-7 IQR) vs. 3 (2-7) days, respectively; p = 0.56). Finally, a total of 844 micafungin courses started after urine culture collection. A total of 49 (6%) had yeast isolated from the urine and treatment duration was similar to those that did not [3 (1-6 IQR) vs. 3 (2-6) days, respectively; p = 0.87). Conclusions: Echinocandin treatment courses did not differ when a yeast was identified from a tracheal isolate or urine specimen. However, a substantial proportion of treatment courses were prolonged in those with negative Candida spp in the blood, suggesting opportunities for antifungal stewardship interventions.
We performed a mixed-methods study to evaluate antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) uptake and to assess variability of program implementation in Missouri hospitals. Despite increasing uptake of ASPs in Missouri, there is wide variability in both the scope and sophistication of these programs.
To characterize trends in outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in the United States
Retrospective ecological and temporal trend study evaluating outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 2013 to 2015
National administrative claims data from a pharmacy benefits manager PARTICIPANTS. Prescription pharmacy beneficiaries from Express Scripts Holding Company
Annual and seasonal percent change in antibiotic prescriptions
Approximately 98 million outpatient antibiotic prescriptions were filled by 39 million insurance beneficiaries during the 3-year study period. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were azithromycin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and cephalexin. No significant changes in individual or overall annual antibiotic prescribing rates were found during the study period. Significant seasonal variation was observed, with antibiotics being 42% more likely to be prescribed during February than September (peak-to-trough ratio [PTTR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.61). Similar seasonal trends were found for azithromycin (PTTR, 2.46; 95% CI, 2.44–3.47), amoxicillin (PTTR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.42–1.89), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (PTTR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.68–2.29).
This study demonstrates that annual national outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices remained unchanged during our study period. Furthermore, seasonal peaks in antibiotics generally used to treat viral upper respiratory tract infections remained unchanged during cold and influenza season. These results suggest that inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics remains widespread, despite the concurrent release of several guideline-based best practices intended to reduce inappropriate antibiotic consumption; however, further research linking national outpatient antibiotic prescriptions to associated medical conditions is needed to confirm these findings.
We present the first description of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) used to successfully manage a multi-antimicrobial drug shortage. Without resorting to formulary restriction, meropenem utilization decreased by 69% and piperacillin-tazobactam by 73%. During the shortage period, hospital mortality decreased (P=.03), while hospital length of stay remained unchanged.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:356–359
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