To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The dominant market where information is discovered plays the role of price leader providing substantial market information to other markets. This study investigates the dynamic relationships of 30 cattle markets across regions, cattle types, and cash/futures markets. The comparison of many markets, using an error correction model, is accomplished with the introduction of a tournament with a hierarchical cluster analysis, which allows us to conclude that the leading price for the U.S. cattle markets is discovered in the futures markets for both feeder and fed cattle.
Refugees commonly experience difficulties with emotional processing, such as alexithymia, due to stressful or traumatic experiences. However, the functional connectivity of the amygdala, which is central to emotional processing, has yet to be assessed in refugees. Thus, the present study investigated the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with emotional processing in North Korean (NK) refugees.
This study included 45 NK refugees and 40 native South Koreans (SK). All participants were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and differences between NK refugees and native SK in terms of resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala were assessed. Additionally, the association between the strength of amygdala connectivity and the TAS score was examined.
Resting-state connectivity values from the left amygdala to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were higher in NK refugees than in native SK. Additionally, the strength of connectivity between the left amygdala and right dlPFC was positively associated with TAS score after controlling for the number of traumatic experiences and BDI and CAPS scores.
The present study found that NK refugees exhibited heightened frontal–amygdala connectivity, and that this connectivity was correlated with alexithymia. The present results suggest that increased frontal–amygdala connectivity in refugees may represent frontal down-regulation of the amygdala, which in turn may produce alexithymia.
The activation of PPARγ by ligands, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, plays an important role in the immune response. Among CLA isomers, trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12)-CLA is known to participate in the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of t10c12-CLA on PPARγ activation, NF-κB activation and TNF-α expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-naive and LPS-stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, the effect of PPARγ inhibition on NF-κB activation and TNF-α expression in porcine PBMC was examined. t10c12-CLA was found to increase TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in LPS-naive porcine PBMC. In contrast, t10c12-CLA decreased TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in LPS-stimulated porcine PBMC. t10c12-CLA up-regulated PPARγ activity and mRNA expression in both LPS-naive and LPS-stimulated porcine PBMC. GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist, completely negated the modulating effects of t10c12-CLA on TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in both LPS-naive and LPS-stimulated porcine PBMC. These results suggest that t10c12-CLA can modulate TNF-α production and NF-κB activation by a PPARγ-dependent pathway in porcine PBMC.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.