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The social inclusion of people with dementia (PwD) is recognised as a global goal of legislation, societal initiatives and service provision. Ensuring the social inclusion of PwD in these areas implies that its dimensions and domains are clear and unambiguous. However, the concept of social inclusion as it is currently used by researchers and practitioners is often vague or acts as a container concept for a variety of different approaches. This paper reports on an integrative review that analysed qualitative and quantitative studies on social inclusion and exclusion of PwD. It focused not only on the empirical results of the included studies but also on the theoretical embedding and methodological approaches to the concept of social inclusion and exclusion. We find that empirical studies on the social inclusion of PwD are scarce and largely characterised by a lack of or inconsistent conceptualisation. Against this background, the operationalisation of the concept and the assessment of the individual aspects of social inclusion with standardised instruments seem to be premature. Substantial theoretical and methodological work is needed to guide research on the social inclusion of PwD. The empirical results show that relationships with other people and being integrated into social networks are essential aspects of social inclusion. Likewise, the strategies and attitudes of caring persons can help to create or reinforce exclusion.
In this study we compare two thermal annealing series of III/V semiconductor heterostructures on Si, where during the first series nitrogen is present in the in situ holder. The second, comparative, measurement is done in a tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) environment. The sample annealed in a TBP environment shows favorable thermal stability up to 500°C compared to the unstabilized sample, which begins to degrade at less than 300°C. Evaporation of P from the material is tracked qualitatively by measuring the thickness of the sample during thermal annealing with and without stabilization. Finally, we investigate the in situ thermal annealing processes at atomic resolution. Here it is possible to study phase separation as well as the diffusion of As from a Ga(NAsP) quantum well in the surrounding GaP material during thermal annealing. To make these investigations possible we developed an extension for our in situ transmission electron microscopy setup for the safe usage of toxic and pyrophoric III/V semiconductor precursors. A commercially available gas cell and gas supply system were expanded with a gas mixing system, an appropriate toxic gas monitoring system and a gas scrubbing system. These components allow in situ studies of semiconductor growth and annealing under the purity conditions required for these materials.
A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.