To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Temperature variation on the Tibetan Plateau over the last 1000 years has been inferred using a composite δ18O record from four ice cores. Data from a new ice core recovered from the Puruogangri ice field in the central Tibetan Plateau are combined with those from three other cores (Dunde, Guliya and Dasuopu) recovered previously. The ice-core δ18O composite record indicates that the temperature change on the whole Tibetan Plateau is similar to that in the Northern Hemisphere on multi-decadal timescales except that there is no decreasing trend from AD 1000 to the late 19th century. The δ18O composite record from the northern Tibetan Plateau, however, indicates a cooling trend from AD 1000 to the late 19th century, which is more consistent with the Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction. The δ18O composite record reveals the existence of the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the Tibetan Plateau. However, on the Tibetan Plateau the LIA is not the coldest period during the last millennium as in other regions in the Northern Hemisphere. The present study indicates that the 20th-century warming on the Tibetan Plateau is abrupt, and is warmer than at any time during the past 1000 years.
Observations of the δ18O in precipitation from four ice cores (Puruogangri, Dasuopu, Guliya and Dunde) from the Tibetan Plateau (TP) provide additional important perspectives on climatic warming during the 20th century in a region where there is a lack of instrumental and observational climate data. The average δ18O and surface air temperature over the TP show very similar fluctuations since 1955, which provides new evidence that the δ18O in the ice cores is at least in part a temperature signal. Nevertheless differences and similarities exist among the four records. Some climatic events, particularly the major cooling episodes, are synchronously recorded in Puruogangri and Dasuopu and in the Bange meteorological air-temperature record. The major features of the ice cores allow them to be classified into two groups, the northern TP group (Dunde and Guliya) and southern TP group (Puruogangri and Dasuopu). This classification is determined by the different processes driving climate change between the northern and southern regions of the TP. Moreover, the δ18O variability between the ice cores within each region further documents the smaller-scale regional variability.
A survey of July 1st glacier, Qilian Shan, China, was carried out in 2002. Previously, the glacier’s boundary had been recorded in 1956, and further research had been carried out in the mid- 1970s and 1980s. Our survey reveals that area shrinkage and surface lowering have accelerated in the past 15 years. Surface elevation changes can result from changes in accumulation, surface melting and emergence velocity. The contributions of these elements to surface lowering are evaluated at the lower part of the glacier from observations of surface velocity, ice thickness and precipitation, and from temperature data near the glacier. Apart from the effect of glacier ice redistribution, our analysis reveals quantitatively that the recent accelerated glacier shrinkage has been caused by increasing temperature. Furthermore, it is established that meltwater discharge from the glacier in the past 17 years has increased due to glacier shrinkage, by about 50% over that from 1975 to 1985.
A 43 year oxalate record has been recovered in a 14.08m ice core from Ürümqi glacier No. 1 (43˚06’N, 86˚49’ E), a mid-latitude glacier at Ürümqi river head, Tien Shan, western China. Averaging 3.6±9.2 ng g–1 the oxalate has a background level <2 ng g–1 with sporadic concentration enhancements. Most of the spikes reach beyond 10 ng g–1 and have durations 51 year. the oxalate variation correlates with that in Far East Rongbuk Glacier (27˚59’N, 86˚55’ E), Qomolangma (Mount Everest), which is located 1600 kmawayacross the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and Taklimakandesert. Although the concentration enhancement in the latter is much higher, and lasts longer, oxalate reaches its highest concentration in both cores at the same time, during winter. the correlation of oxalate records suggests that the two areas may have had the same kind of local sources, but with a much larger (COO)22– flux in the Qomolangma area, or that they may have had a common source in the Indian subcontinent through the longitudinal atmospheric circulation. the concentration variation in the past 40 years coincides with industrial/economic development in southern Asia, and is mainly due to anthropogenic pollution.
Three ice cores distributed across Dasuopu (DSP) glacier in the Himalaya were recovered. the annual net accumulation (An) record reconstructed from one of the cores reflects major precipitation variability for the central Himalaya. This record agrees well with precipitation records from Nepal and northeast India, while it does not compare well with the all-India precipitation record. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 200 year long Dasuopu accumulation (DSP An) record indicates significant variability on interannual and inter-decadal time-scales. the record shows that the early 18th century was dry, wet conditions prevailed during the period 1820–1930, and after 1930 An decreased to its present value. Distinct secular trends were not found in the record. for the period 1950– 94, the variability of DSP An is found to correlate significantly with the thermal contrast between the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian Ocean surface temperature. Additionally, a significant relationship between DSP An and solar activity is detected.
Ice cores recovered for paleoclimatic and/or paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the Tien Shan and Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau often encounter cracks. Although we expect that cracks opened to surface meltwater will inevitably change ice-core records, we do not know how and to what extent records are influenced. An ice core retrieved from glacier No. 1 at Ürümqi river head, Tien Shan, China, exhibits a crack nearly 2.5 m long that has admitted meltwater, forming secondary ice within the fracture. A small inclusion of the infiltrated ice in sampling is shown to reduce δ18O by an extent of Holocene vs Last Glacial Maximum while enhancing significantly the pH, conductivity and the following ionic species: CH3COO–, and CO(COO)22–. of the parameters increased, and HCOO– are the most affected, being enhanced nearly six-fold in the fractured section compared to the non-fractured sections, followed by CO(COO)22– and electrical conductivity measurement (ECM). Despite the alteration, primary fluctuations of some parameters are still recognizable. This suggests that if the infiltrated ice can be avoided in the sampling operation, ice cores with cracks may still provide authentic records. This shows the need to pay close attention to physical characteristics of ice cores in order to identify such secondary ice.
In 1997, three ice cores were recovered from Dasuopu glacier on the northern slope of the central Himalaya. the first core, 159.9 m long, was drilled at 7000ma.s.l. down the flowline from the top of the col. the second core, 149.2m long, was drilled on the col at 7200ma.s.l. the third core, 167.7 m long, was also drilled on the col at 7200ma.s.l., 100 maway from the second core. the present paper discusses the δ18O and methane results reconstructed for the past 1000 years based on the second core. the δ18O can be interpreted as an air-temperature signal. the methane concentration is mainly representative of atmospheric methane concentration. Both δ18O and methane records show an obvious increasing trend in the past 1000 years. Methane concentration in the record is similar to the fluctuations of δ18O, decreasing during cold periods and increasing during warm periods. the Little Ice Age was well recorded in the core by both δ18O and methane. the coldest period appeared in the late 18th century, accompanied by a decrease in methane concentration. the abrupt methane-concentration increase starting after the 18th century is no doubt due to anthropogenic input. the observed methane-concentration decrease during World Wars I and II clearly demonstrates the importance of the anthropogenic input to atmospheric methane concentration if further measurements prove that it is a true atmospheric signal.