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This paper uses Theil's (1979) entropy-based measure of inequality and farm-level data to examine changes in farm business wealth (farm equity) of farm households. The farms associated with farm households are grouped by state into ten regions of the United States. The Theil entropy measure is then calculated and used to decompose total inequality of farm wealth into within-state and across-states (between states) inequalities for each region. Results show that since the enactment of the 1996 Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act, inequality in farm wealth among farms within a state has decreased relative to the number of farms per state, across all regions. Further, most of the reduction in farm wealth inequality is attributed to increased equality in the distribution of real estate assets of the farm households, a major component of farm wealth.
This study examines the return on agricultural assets relative to nonfinancial corporate assets in the general economy using aggregate Bureau of Economic Analysis data. Our results indicate that the rate of return on nonfarm assets dominates the rate of return on agricultural assets. The average rate of return on nonfarm assets is higher than the average rate of return on farm assets, and the variance of the rate of return on nonfarm assets is lower than the variance of the rate of return on farm assets. Furthermore, the rate of return on agricultural assets only exceeds the rate of return in the nonfarm sector in 1992.
Normals (N = 42) and patients with mild memory
difficulty (N = 123) were given a neuropsychological
test battery, and then followed annually for 3 years to
determine which individuals developed sufficient functional
change that they met clinical criteria for AD. Twenty-three
of the 123 participants with mild memory difficulty converted
to a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD)
within 3 years of follow-up. Four of the 20 neuropsychological
measures obtained at baseline, were useful in discriminating
the groups on the basis of their status 3 years after the
tests were given. The 4 discriminating tests pertained
to assessments of memory and executive function. When the
controls were compared to the individuals with memory impairments
who ultimately developed AD (the converters),
the accuracy of discrimination was 89%, based on the neuropsychological
measures at baseline. The discrimination of the controls
from the individuals with mild memory problems who did
not progress to the point where they met clinical criteria
for probable AD over the 3 years of follow-up (the Questionables)
was 74% and the discrimination of the questionables from
the converters was 80%. The specific tests that contributed
to these discriminations, in conjunction with recent neuropathological
and neuroimaging data from preclinical cases, have implications
for which brain regions may be affected during the prodromal
phase of AD. (JINS, 2001, 7, 631–639.)
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