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We aimed to investigate the association between very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with an onset of ≥60 years, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using biomarkers.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Neuropsychology clinic of Osaka University Hospital in Japan.
Thirty-three participants were classified into three groups: eight AD biomarker-negative VLOSLP (VLOSLP−AD), nine AD biomarker-positive VLOSLP (VLOSLP+AD), and sixteen amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to AD without psychosis (aMCI−P+AD) participants.
Phosphorylated tau levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and 18F-Florbetapir positron emission tomography results were used as AD biomarkers. Several scales (e.g. the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) Logical Memory (LM) I and II, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)-plus) were conducted to assess clinical characteristics.
Those in both VLOSLP−AD and +AD groups scored higher than those in aMCI−P+AD in WMS-R LM I. On the other hand, VLOSLP+AD participants scored in between the other two groups in the WMS-R LM II, with only VLOSLP−AD participants scoring significantly higher than aMCI−P+AD participants. There were no significant differences in sex distribution and MMSE scores among the three groups or in the subtype of psychotic symptoms between VLOSLP−AD and +AD participants. Four VLOSLP−AD and five VLOSLP+AD participants harbored partition delusions. Delusion of theft was shown in two VLOSLP−AD patients and five VLOSLP+AD patients.
Some VLOSLP patients had AD pathology. Clinical characteristics were different between AD biomarker-positive and AD biomarker-negative VLOSLP, which may be helpful for detecting AD pathology in VLOSLP patients.
To examine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and tap test response to elucidate the effects of comorbidity of AD in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
Osaka University Hospital.
Patients with possible iNPH underwent a CSF tap test.
Concentrations of amyloid beta (Aβ) 1–40, 1–42, and total tau in CSF were measured. The response of tap test was judged using Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 10-m reciprocation walking test (10MWT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and iNPH grading scale. The ratio of Aβ1–42 to Aβ1–40 (Aβ42/40 ratio) and total tau concentration was compared between tap test-negative (iNPH-nTT) and -positive (iNPH-pTT) patients.
We identified 27 patients as iNPH-nTT and 81 as iNPH-pTT. Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly lower (mean [SD] = 0.063 [0.026] vs. 0.083 [0.036], p = 0.008), and total tau in CSF was significantly higher (mean [SD] = 385.6 [237.2] vs. 293.6 [165.0], p = 0.028) in iNPH-nTT than in iNPH-pTT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that low Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly associated with the negativity of the tap test. The response of cognition was significantly related to Aβ42/40 ratio. The association between Aβ42/40 ratio and tap test response, especially in cognition, remained after adjusting for disease duration and severity at baseline.
A low CSF Aβ42/40 ratio is associated with a poorer cognitive response, but not gait and urinary response, to a tap test in iNPH. Even if CSF biomarkers suggest AD comorbidity, treatment with iNPH may be effective for gait and urinary dysfunction.
Appropriate countermeasures that can alleviate behavioral psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are proposed. However, the effectiveness of these countermeasures has not been fully verified. Conversely, the caregivers of patients with dementia encounter BPSD every day and adopt some kind of measures against that particular BPSD.
We collected data regarding “whether or not a certain measure against a particular BPSD alleviates the symptom (care experience)” from all over Japan using Dementia Chienowa Net, which is a website we developed in 2016. We also collected patient’s data, such as sex, primary disease, and nursing care level, which is an indicator of dementia severity in the Long-term Care Insurance System of Japan.
In this study we analyzed 2003 care experiences (M/F:808/1192). In terms of primary disease, there were 1113 cases (55.6%) of Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 236 cases (11.8%) of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 217 cases (10.8%) of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and 118 cases (5.9%) of vascular dementia (VaD). Among AD patients living at home with nursing care level 1, care experiences related to forgetfulness were the most common at 43%, denial/rejection was 14%, and restless behavior was 9%. For nursing care level 2, forgetfulness was 38%, restless behavior was 15%, and denial/rejection was 9%. For nursing care level 3, restless behavior was most common at 30%, forgetfulness was 17%, and denial/rejection was 16%. Success rates were calculated; for “forgetting to take medicine,” the success rate of “use of medicine box” was 40%. The success rate of “use of medicine calendar” was 60.8%, and the success rate of “someone handing over the medicine” was 92.3%. For “poor fire management,” the success rate of “changing to equipment that is less likely to cause hazards” was 71.4%.
The frequency of DLB and FTLD in care experiences on Dementia Chienowa Net was more than the frequency of the diseases in Japan. The percentage of BPSD categories troubling patients’ families differed depending on the severity of the dementia. The success rate of some common countermeasures against BPSD frequently encountered in daily life was embodied numerically.
Background: Long hospitalization is often needed to treat severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which places heavy demands on hospital resources. Consequently, patients with severe BPSD usually wait for a long time to be admitted. There is a need to identify factors related to long hospitalization to better manage resources of a psychiatric hospital.
Methods: We surveyed 150 consecutive patients hospitalized in the neuropsychiatric units of three hospitals for treatment of BPSD from 11 May 2009 to 30 November 2010. Only patients with reliable relatives were included in the study. We evaluated data of the patients (demographics, cognitive impairment, activities of daily living, causal disease for dementia, dementia severity, and the amount of pension), their primary caregivers (demographics and care burden), and their doctors’ years of experience in treating dementia. We followed up to 180 days and assessed the effect of these factors on the length of stay.
Results: Of the 150 patients, 104 were discharged within 180 days and 46 were hospitalized for more than 180 days. Average length of stay for patients was 110.4 ± 58.1 days. In both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, length of stay was longer for patients with smaller pensions and patients whose doctors had fewer years of experience in treating dementia. Length of stay was not found to be associated with any of the other variables.
Conclusions: Patients with smaller pensions and whose doctors had less experience in treating dementia tended to require longer hospitalization.
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