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Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, and is sometimes overlooked because of the diversity of clinical symptoms.
From a series of WE patients with cancer, we report a lung cancer patient who developed WE, the main symptom of which was agitation.
A 50-year-old woman with lung cancer was referred to our psycho-oncology clinic because of agitation lasting for three days. No laboratory findings or drugs explaining her agitation were identified. Although the patient did not develop delirium, ophthalmoplegia, or ataxia, WE was suspected because she experienced a loss of appetite loss lasting 5 weeks. This diagnosis was supported by abnormal serum thiamine and disappearance of agitation one hour after intravenous thiamine administration.
Significance of results
This report emphasizes the clinical diversity of WE and indicates the limits of the ability to diagnose WE from typical clinical symptoms. The presence of a loss of appetite for more than two weeks may be the key to the accurate diagnosis of WE.
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a thiamine deficiency. Although WE has been recognized in cancer patients, it can be overlooked because many patients do not exhibit symptoms that are typical of WE, such as delirium, ataxia, or ocular palsy. Furthermore, outpatients with WE who intermittently present at psycho-oncology clinics have not been described as far as we can ascertain.
This report describes two patients who did not exhibit the complete classic triad of symptoms among a series with cancer and WE, and who attended a psycho-oncology outpatient clinic.
Case 1, a 76-year-old woman with pancreatic cancer and liver metastasis, periodically attended a psycho-oncology outpatient clinic. She presented with delirium and ataxia as well as appetite loss that had persisted for 8 weeks. We suspected WE, which was confirmed by low serum thiamine levels and the disappearance of delirium after thiamine administration. Case 2, a 79-year-old man with advanced stomach cancer, was referred to a psycho-oncology outpatient clinic with depression that had persisted for about 1 month. He also had appetite loss that had persisted for several weeks. He became delirious during the first visit to the outpatient clinic. Our initial suspicion of WE was confirmed by low serum thiamine levels and the disappearance of delirium after thiamine administration. The key indicator of a diagnosis of WE in both patients was appetite loss.
Significance of results
This report emphasizes awareness of WE in the outpatient setting, even when patients do not exhibit the classical triad of WE. Appetite loss might be the key to a diagnosis of WE in the absence of other causes of delirium.
Thiamine is an essential coenzyme for oxidative metabolisms; however, it is not synthesized in the human body, and the average thiamine storage capacity is approximately 18 days. Therefore, thiamine deficiency (TD) can occur in any condition of unbalanced nutrition. If TD is left untreated, it causes the neuropsychiatric disorder Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Although WE is a medical emergency, it is sometimes overlooked because most patients with WE do not exhibit all of the typical symptoms, including delirium, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. If all of the typical clinical symptoms of WE are absent, diagnosis of TD or WE becomes more difficult.
From a series of cancer patients, we reported three patients who developed TD without the typical clinical symptoms of WE.
A 69-year-old woman with pancreatic body cancer receiving chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine for six months. Her performance status (PS) was 1. A detailed interview revealed that she had appetite loss for six months. Another 69-year-old woman with ovarian cancer received nedaplatin; her PS was 0. A detailed interview revealed that she had appetite loss for three months. A 67-year-old woman with colon cancer receiving ramucirumab in combination with second-line fluorouracil with folinic acid and irinotecan. Her PS was 1. A detailed interview revealed that she had appetite loss for three weeks. None exhibited typical clinical signs of WE, but they developed appetite loss for six months, three months, and three weeks, respectively. The diagnosis of TD was supported by abnormally low serum thiamine levels.
Significance of the results
This report emphasizes the possibility of TD in cancer patients even when patients do not develop typical clinical signs of WE. The presence of appetite loss for more than two weeks may aid in diagnosing TD. Patients receiving chemotherapy may be at greater risk for developing TD.
The cross power spectrum of the 21 cm signal and Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) is a probe of the Epoch of Reionization. Astrophysical foregrounds do not correlate with the LAE distribution, though the foregrounds contribute to the error. To study the impact of foregrounds on the measurement, we assume realistic observation by the Murchison Widefield Array using a catalogue of radio galaxies, a LAE survey by the Subaru Hyper Supreme-Cam and the redshift of LAEs is determined by the Prime Focus Spectrograph. The HI distribution is estimated from a radiative transfer simulation with models based on results of radiation hydrodynamics simulation. Using these models, we found that the error of cross power spectrum is dominated by foreground terms. Furthermore, we estimate the effects of foreground removal, and find 99% of the foreground removal is required to detect the 21 cm-LAE signal at k ∼ 0.4 h Mpc−1.
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine deficiency. Several reports of WE in cancer patients are known. WE is sometimes overlooked because most patients do not exhibit its typical symptoms (e.g., delirium, ataxia, ocular palsy). If delirium is not present, a diagnosis of WE is difficult because delirium is the hallmark symptom of WE.
Taken from a series on WE in cancer, we report two patients who developed WE without delirium during periodic psycho-oncology outpatient visits.
Case 1. A 61-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who was periodically attending a psycho-oncology outpatient clinic developed an unsteady gait. WE was suspected because she also developed appetite loss for two weeks, and we could find no other laboratory findings to explain her unsteady gait. Our diagnosis was supported by abnormal serum thiamine and disappearance of the gait disturbance after intravenous thiamine administration. Case 2. A 50-year-old woman with breast carcinoma with bone metastasis developed an unsteady gait. WE was suspected because she also developed loss of appetite for two weeks, and no other laboratory findings could explain her unsteady gait. The diagnosis was supported by abnormal serum thiamine and disappearance of the gait disturbance after administration of intravenous thiamine.
Significance of Results:
Our report emphasizes the importance of being aware of WE, even when patients do not present with delirium. The presence of loss of appetite for more than two weeks may be the key to a diagnosis of WE.
Neuroimaging studies of depression considered as a stress-related disorder have shown uncoupling in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc). We hypothesised that the mismatch change of rCBF and rCMRglc could be a stress-related phenomenon.
We exposed male rats to 15-min period of forced swim (FS), followed by the measurement of rCBF using N-isopropyl-4-[123I] iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and rCMRglc using 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG).
The uptake rate of 18F-FDG in the FS group showed a significant decrease in the prefrontal cortex (0.86±0.20%ID/g, p<0.01) and thalamus (0.77±0.17%ID/g, p<0.05) and tended to be lower in the hippocampus (0.58±0.13%ID/g) and cerebellum (0.59±0.13%ID/g) without overt alteration in the uptake rate of 123I-IMP.
The FS stress can cause mismatch change of rCBF and rCMRglc, which reflect a stress-related phenomenon.
Protein malnutrition promotes hepatic steatosis, decreases insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and retards growth. To identify new molecules involved in such changes, we conducted DNA microarray analysis on liver samples from rats fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet for 8 h. We identified the fibroblast growth factor 21 gene (Fgf21) as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes under conditions of acute protein malnutrition (P<0·05, false-discovery rate<0·001). In addition, amino acid deprivation increased Fgf21 mRNA levels in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells (P<0·01). These results suggested that amino acid limitation directly increases Fgf21 expression. FGF21 is a polypeptide hormone that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 also promotes a growth hormone-resistance state and suppresses IGF-I in transgenic mice. Therefore, to determine further whether Fgf21 up-regulation causes hepatic steatosis and growth retardation after IGF-I decrease in protein malnutrition, we fed an isoenergetic low-protein diet to Fgf21-knockout (KO) mice. Fgf21-KO did not rescue growth retardation and reduced plasma IGF-I concentration in these mice. Fgf21-KO mice showed greater epididymal white adipose tissue weight and increased hepatic TAG and cholesterol levels under protein malnutrition conditions (P<0·05). Overall, the results showed that protein deprivation directly increased Fgf21 expression. However, growth retardation and decreased IGF-I were not mediated by increased FGF21 expression in protein malnutrition. Furthermore, FGF21 up-regulation rather appears to have a protective effect against obesity and hepatic steatosis in protein-malnourished animals.
Treatment-resistant depression is a challenging problem in the clinical setting. Tipepidine has been used as a non-narcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959.
We administered tipepidine to 11 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Tipepidine was given for 8 weeks as an augmentation.
Tipepidine significantly improved depression scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression. Add-on treatment with tipepidine significantly improved scores on the trail making test and Rey auditory verbal learning test. However, no changes were observed in blood concentrations of stress-related hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate) with tipepidine augmentation.
Tipepidine might be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment-resistant depression.
To control an input energy for a load, an impedance control with a gap distance of an electron beam diode was studied using an intense pulsed-power generator. The output current of the pulsed-power generator as a function of the gap distance of electron beam diode was measured. It indicated that the behaviors of the experimentally obtained peak current and the theoretically obtained space-charge limited current were found to decrease with an increase in the gap distance. The input energy for the load was estimated from the output current, which decreased with an increase in the gap distance. It also revealed the space-charge limited current suppresses the input energy for the load with a decade.
Formation of interfacial dislocations (IDs) and dislocation half-loop arrays (HLAs) and their appearance in 4H-SiC epi-wafers are investigated by X-ray topography and KOH etching analysis. Synchrotron reflection X-ray topography demonstrates the ability to image IDs and HLAs simultaneously and reveal their densities as well as spatial distributions in the epi-wafers. The vertical location of IDs in the epi-wafer is also examined by this technique. The influence of wafer warp, in-situ H2 etching prior to epitaxial growth, substrate off-angle as well as the growth face (Si-face and C-face) on the densities and spatial distributions of IDs and HLAs are discussed.
TEX101, a glycoprotein we recently identified, is primarily characterized as a unique germ-cell-specific marker protein that shows sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Based on data obtained from molecular biological as well as immuno-morphological studies, we believe this molecule may play a role in the process underlying germ cell formation. However, many points remain unclear as the molecular characteristics and its physiological functions are far from being completely understood. To clarify the molecular basis of TEX101, we herein report a further biochemical characterization of the molecule using testicular Triton X-100 extracts from mice. Deglycosylation studies using endoglycohydrolases that delete N-linked oligosaccharides (OS) from the molecule show that TEX101 is highly (approximately 47%) N-glycosylated. All potential N-glycosylation sites within TEX101 are glycosylated and most of these sites are occupied by endoglycosidase F2-sensitive biantennary complex type OS units. In addition, an extremely low population among TEX101 possesses only endoglycosidase H-sensitive hybrid type OS units. In studies using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C against native testicular cells or TEX101 transfectant, the enzyme treatment caused major reduction of the TEX101 expression on the cell, suggesting that TEX101, at least in part, is expressed as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Taken together, these findings will help elucidate the molecular nature of TEX101, a marker molecule that appeared on germ cells during gametogenesis.
Hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns were formed on indium tin oxide substrates, and thick films of poly(phenylsilsesquioxane) (PhSiO3/2) particles, prepared by the sol-gel process, were selectively deposited onto hydrophilic areas of the substrates by electrophoresis. The films composed of PhSiO3/2 particles became transparent with morphological changes from aggregates of particles to a continuous phase after a heat treatment. After heat treatment at 200 °C, convex-shaped PhSiO3/2 micropatterns were formed on the hydrophilic region of the pattern. Moreover, the height of micropatterns was controlled by the deposition time. This patterning technique has a wide variety of applications such as fabrication of micro-optical components.
c-axis-oriented epitaxial SrBi2Ta2O9 ultra-thin films were grown by pulse-gas-introduced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (pulsed-MOCVD) on (100)SrTiO3 single crystal substrates with atomic scale step structure and their growth behavior was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Minimum growth unit was found to be “ghalf-unit-cell” of SrBi2Ta2O9. Height of steps and width of terraces observed at SrBi2Ta2O9 film surface were in good agreement with those at SrTiO3 substrate surface. This shape transfer was induced by lattice displacement of SrBi2Ta2O9 along c-direction formed at atomic step on SrTiO3 substrate. In-plane growth of half-unit-cell SrBi2Ta2O9 2D-islands striding across the step walls was observed. It was considered to be a special phenomenon for c-axis-oriented films of layer-structured compounds due to their large crystal anisotropy and/or several times larger half-unit-cell height than single step one of SrTiO3.
Temperature dependency of the dielectric property of c-axis-oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 films was investigated in a temperature range from 80 to 400 K. c-axis-oriented epitaxial films with the film thickness of 30 and 140 nm were grown on (100)cSrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Increasing lattice distortions along the a- and c-axes with decreasing film thickness was ascertained by XRD reciprocal space mapping. However, capacitance change normalized by the capacitance data at 300 K for with temperature was independent of the film thickness; it increased from 80 to 230 K and contrary decreased with increasing the temperature. Especially, the temperature coefficient of capacitance from 230 to 330 K was almost the same. It indicates that dielectric characteristics of these films for the temperature are independent of the film thickness in the actual use. Moreover, the same mesurement for the 120 nm-thick fiber-textured c-axis-oriented SrBi4Ti4O15 film deposited on the (100)cLaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100)Si substrate was also investigated. Resultant capacitance change with the temperature was basically the same with that of the epitaxial one, even though the temperature at maximum capacitance value was slightly shifted to lower temperature of 200 K. These data suggest that of capacitance change with the temperature was almost independent of the film thickness and the in-plane orientation.
Hafnium oxide films were deposited on silicon substrates at deposition temperatures ranging from 190 to 500 °C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using an amide precursor, Hf[N(C2H5)2]4, and O2 as source materials. The effect of deposition temperature on the deposition characteristics and electrical properties of the resultant films were investigated. Reaction-limited deposition of hafnium oxide films occurred at deposition temperatures under 380 °C. Concentration of residues, such as carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen, monotonously decreased with increasing deposition temperature, with nitrogen being the most thermally susceptible. However, surface roughness reached a minimum value at 400 °C. Amorphous films were obtained for deposition temperatures up to 450 °C, but obviously became crystallized at 500 °C. Accumulation capacitance increased with increasing deposition temperature but saturated above 400 °C. Moreover, postdeposition annealing at 800 °C caused no obvious degradation in the electrical properties of the film deposited at 400 °C.
La-Ni-O films were deposited at deposition temperature ranging from 250 to 540°C by rf magnetron sputter deposition. The effects of deposition temperature and the following heat-treatment condition on the constituent phases and characteristics of LaNiO3 films were investigated. LaNiO3 phase was obtained at the deposition temperature of 250 and 360°C, while La-rich phase of La2NiO4 was appeared above 540°C. Crystalline phases of resultant films after the following heat-treatment strongly depended on the partial pressure of oxygen gas in ambience, i.e., in case of the heat-treatment at 800°C, diffraction peaks originated from LaNiO3 phase disappeared on XRD patterns in pure nitrogen gas ambience, while impurity peaks of NiO appeared in oxygen-excess (>50%) ambience. As a result, LaNiO3 films with high crystallinity and the same lattice parameter as the bulk one were obtained in the deposition at 360°C followed by the heat-treatment at 700°C in air.
Martensitic transformation behavior of Ti50Ni40Pt10 (TiNiPt) melt-spun ribbons were investigated where the heat treatment temperature was systematically changed from 473K to 773K. A hot-forged bulk TiNiPt material with the similar chemical composition was also tested as a comparison. θ-2θ X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the as-spun ribbons were fully crystallized. The apparent phases of as-spun ribbons at room temperature are both B19 martensite and B2 parent phase instead of B2 single phase for the hot-forged bulk material. No precipitates were found in as-spun and heat-treated ribbons. It was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry that all the specimens exhibit one-step transformation. The martensitic transformation temperatures of the TiNiPt as-spun ribbons are 100K higher than those of the hot-forged bulk material, and the martensitic transformation temperature decreases with increasing heat treatment temperature.
Ar penetration during gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) irradiation has been investigated using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of Ar rose to a maximum and then decreased gradually with increasing depth. The depth of the Ar penetration peak increased in proportion to the cube root of the acceleration voltage of GCIB and was independent of ion dose. Ar penetration was attributed to fast neutrals in the GCIB and was successfully suppressed by decreasing the pressure of the space downstream of the GCIB or decreasing the monomer ion density in order to suppress charge transfer collisions.