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The present study sought to examine the impact of physical symptoms, facial disfigurement, adequacy of preoperative information, and social support on anxiety and depression in Japanese patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) who had undergone surgery.
A cross-sectional study with 194 patients was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. This instruments included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Head and Neck cancer module (QLQ–H&N35), and a Social Support Scale developed by Okabayashi et al. (1997).
The majority (56.7%) had surgery two or more years before completing the questionnaire. More than 25% of respondents showed anxiety or depression. Higher levels of perceived social support were associated with lower rates of anxiety and depression (p < 0.01). Sensory problems were associated with anxiety, and reduced sexuality was associated with depression (p < 0.01). Perceived disfigurement and adequacy of preoperative information were not associated with anxiety or depression.
Significance of Results:
Survivors of HNC experience anxiety and depression for an extended period of time. Social support may alleviate the severity of these disorders. More research is needed to confirm the impact of facial disfigurement and that of the preoperative information provided by surgeons on psychological distress in HNC patients.
We present recent results on Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) deep S-band (2-4 GHz) observation towards a protocluster 4C23.56 at redshift z ∼ 2.5. The protocluster 4C23.56 is known to have a significant over density (∼ 5 times) of star-burst galaxies selected to be Hα line-bright by a Subaru narrow band imaging. Now we have found 25 HAEs associated with the protocluster. These starburst HAEs are likely to become massive ellipticals at z = 0 in a cluster. Various other galaxy populations also reside in this field and the fact makes the field very unique as a tool to understand galaxy formation in a over dense region. Subsequent deep 1100-μm continuum surveys by the ASTE 10-m dish have discovered that several submillimeter bright galaxies (SMGs) coincide with HAEs, suggesting HAEs undergoing dusty starbursts. As star formation rates (SFRs) of HAEs might have been underestimated, we use radio being resistant to dust extinction. We investigate the correlation between SFR1.4 GHz and SFRHα for radio index α = 0.8 to see if the correlation holds for the sources and to check the number of dusty star forming galaxies. Our final results will allow us to evaluate quantitatively how the galaxy formation channel may be different under the condition of over-densities.
Thermal-stable, conductive, and flexible carbon fabric (CF), which is composed of thin carbon fibers prepared by electrospinning, was used for the substrate of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter arrays. The field emitter arrays were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The current density-electric field characteristics revealed that the CNT field emitter arrays on CF produced a higher current density at a lower turn-on voltage compared to ones on a Si substrate. This emitter integrated with a gate electrode based on hierarchy-structured carbon materials, CNTs on CF, can be used for light sources, displays, and other electronic devices.
For a formation of metal hydride of MgH2 or AlH3 under room temperature and ambient pressure, the cathode electrodes of metal and lithium hydride are electrochemically charged with Li anode electrodes in the system of Li-ion extraction. For MgH2 formation, the VC (Voltage-Composition) curve of Mg + 2LiH during charge shows a plateau voltage at 0.6 V until the final composition of 1.05 Li extraction. After charge MgH2 phase is observed by the XRD measurement. Therefore MgH2 is produced by the electrochemical charge from Mg and LiH. For AlH3 formation, Al + 3LiH is charged until the final composition of 0.6 Li at a plateau voltage of 0.8 V which corresponds to the reaction between Al and LiH for the formation of AlH3. In the XRD profile after charge AlH3 phase is not detected although the intensities of Al and LiH decrease compared with these before charge, which suggests the reaction leading to the formation of AlH3.
Degradation property of aluminum due to hydrogen is studied. Hydrogen is introduced by electrolysis charge in aqueous solution with addition of 0.1 mass % NH4SCN as a hydrogen recombination poison. The amount of hydrogen and its existing state in the material is analyzed by hydrogen desorption curves measured by the thermal desorption spectroscopy. The hydrogen desorption curves of charged aluminum showed two peaks, one at less than 100 °C and the other around 400 °C. The existing state of hydrogen relate to each peaks are identified as weakly trapped solute hydrogen to vacancy and free hydrogen molecule located in cavities that exists in the bulk of the material. Tensile properties are obtained to determine degradation property of the material due to hydrogen. The effect of hydrogen on degradation of charged aluminum is analyzed in terms of interaction between hydrogen and vacancy or dislocation. Solute hydrogen and cavities are found to affect ductility of aluminum, whereas hydrogen molecule in cavities has no effect.
The amount of residual carbon in the GaAsN film deposited by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) is decreased by the flow rate modulation growth method (FM-CBE). The number of carbon atoms remained in the grown film increases as the growth temperature decreases. At low temperatures below 440°C, the carbon atoms are mainly originated from the nitrogen source gas mono-methylhydrazine. However, increasing the substrate temperature during the growth causes the deterioration of film qualities and the high growth temperature is not the solution for reducing the impurities. On the other hand, by intermitting the supply of gallium source triethylgallium while the arsenic and nitrogen sources are continuously supplied, the carbon concentration drastically decreases as compared with that grown by the conventional CBE growth. The results of temperature programmed desorption and ab initio calculations suggest that the desorption of adsorbates that contain C atom, such as, NHCH3, is enhanced by the FM-CBE growth, resulting in the decrease of the residual C concentration.
Optical properties of tensile strained AlxGa1-xN films of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on sapphire were investigated by using polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Emissions from AlxGa1-xN with polarization of E//c and E⊥c were obtained at different peak energies. The energy separation of these emissions with polarization was increased linearly with the increase in Al mole fraction of the strained AlxGa1-xN, indicating that the energy separation was due to biaxial strain in the tensile strained AlxGa1-xN.
A novel surface engineering of nano-shaped materials, i.e., surface coating in supercritical fluid is proposed. Conformal deposition of a silicon-oxide thin film in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) where O2 gas is miscible as an oxidizing agent is demonstrated. A uniform silicon-oxide film has been deposited even on backside of a nano-shaped SiO2, which is hard in the standard chemical vapor deposition. Filling of a Si-oxide into the horizontal gap has also been successfully achieved. Deposition of a fluorocarbon in scCO2 were tried to investigate surface modification using scCO2 and a hydrophilic SiO2 surface became water-repellent after the surface modification. These results indicate that the developed surface engineering in the supercritical fluid is promising technology in nanoscale device fabrication and micro (nano-) electromechanical systems.
We studied the crystallization mechanism of ultra-fast phase change optical disks with recording layers made of GaSb material for digital versatile disk (DVD) systems. The results of a static recording test and an amorphous mark formation simulation suggest that GaSb maintains a high crystal growth rate even at temperatures 150 degrees lower than the material's melting point. Disks with recording layers made of this material have a write speed margin ranging from DVD 3× to 8× or more.
We have investigated a resist-trimming process for SAL601 chemically amplified negative electron beam resist. Ultra-fine SAL601 resist patterns with a width of 16nm were obtained by an isotropic trimming process in oxygen plasma. This pattern resolution in SAL601 could not be obtained through direct electron beam lithography alone. Using the trimmed electron beam resists, we have successfully fabricated ultra-fine poly-silicon patterns of less than 20nm width. We applied this nanolithography technique to fabricating an ultra-small metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) and revealed that this trimming process is a useful method for nanometer-scale silicon device fabrication.
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