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Hospital preparedness against disasters is key to achieving disaster mitigation for health. To gain a holistic view of hospitals in Japan, one of the most disaster-prone countries, a nationwide surveillance of hospital preparedness was conducted.
A cross-sectional, paper-based interview was conducted that targeted all of the 8701 registered hospitals in Japan. Preparedness was assessed with regard to local hazards, compliance to building code, and preparation of resources such as electricity, water, communication tools, and transportation tools.
Answers were obtained from 6122 hospitals (response rate: 70.3%), among which 20.5% were public (national or city-run) hospitals and others were private. Eight percent were the hospitals assigned as disaster-base hospitals and the others were non-disaster-base hospitals. Overall compliance to building code, power generators, water tanks, emergency communication tools, and helicopter platforms was 90%, 84%, 95%, 43%, and 22%, respectively.
Major vulnerabilities in logistics in mega-cities and stockpiles required for chronic care emerged from the results of this nationwide surveillance of hospitals in Japan. To conduct further intensive surveillance to meet community health needs, appropriate sampling methods should be established on the basis of this preliminary study. Holistic vulnerability analysis of community hospitals will lead to more robust disaster mitigation at the local level. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:614–618)
Consider an elliptic curve defined over an imaginary quadratic field K with good reduction at the primes above p ≥ 5 and with complex multiplication by the full ring of integers of K. In this paper, we construct p-adic analogues of the Eisenstein-Kronecker series for such an elliptic curve as Coleman functions on the elliptic curve. We then prove p-adic analogues of the first and second Kronecker limit formulas by using the distribution relation of the Kronecker theta function.
Hexagonal ZnO was grown on hexagonal (001) sapphire substrate, then cubic La(Sr)MnO3(LSMO) was grown on ZnO underlayer by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 550-750°C to obtain double-layer of LSMO/ZnO. Out-of-plane (001) oriented ZnO was grown with in-plane orientation of [10-10](0001)ZnO//[11-20](0001)sapphire. Mixed phase of LSMO with out-of-plane (001), (110) and (111) orientations was grown on (001) ZnO usually. However each single phase of LSMO could be grown by controlling deposition conditions. The LSMO grains have their in-plane orientations of (110)LSMO //[10-10](0001)ZnO and (111)LSMO//[11-20](0001)ZnO.
The operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants generates a radioactive effluent containing nitrate salts as the major constituent. This waste must be disposed of safely and economically, and to achieve this aim the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is developing a cement based encapsulation method to immobilise this waste. Non-radioactive development work has been performed at both small and large-scale (up to 200 litres) to investigate the optimum cement formulation. The results from these studies demonstrate that nitrate waste that has been concentrated by evaporation of the water to a predetermined level can be successfully encapsulated up to a waste loading corresponding to 50 wt% sodium nitrate. It has been identified that high concentrations of bicarbonate ions in the effluent can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the cement encapsulated waste; however, provided this concentration is controlled, successful encapsulation of the effluent is still achieved.
Degradation property of aluminum due to hydrogen is studied. Hydrogen is introduced by electrolysis charge in aqueous solution with addition of 0.1 mass % NH4SCN as a hydrogen recombination poison. The amount of hydrogen and its existing state in the material is analyzed by hydrogen desorption curves measured by the thermal desorption spectroscopy. The hydrogen desorption curves of charged aluminum showed two peaks, one at less than 100 °C and the other around 400 °C. The existing state of hydrogen relate to each peaks are identified as weakly trapped solute hydrogen to vacancy and free hydrogen molecule located in cavities that exists in the bulk of the material. Tensile properties are obtained to determine degradation property of the material due to hydrogen. The effect of hydrogen on degradation of charged aluminum is analyzed in terms of interaction between hydrogen and vacancy or dislocation. Solute hydrogen and cavities are found to affect ductility of aluminum, whereas hydrogen molecule in cavities has no effect.
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