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Stars of 8–10 M⊙ form a strongly electron-degenerate oxygen–neon–magnesium core which is more massive than ∼1.1 M⊙, and become super-Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. The oxygen–neon–magnesium core increases its mass through H and He shell burning. The core contracts accordingly and the central density increases. In the high density core, electron capture takes place and further boosts the core contraction. When electron capture on 20Ne starts, it induces oxygen–neon deflagration. It remains a theoretical question whether neutron star can be formed after the deflagration has started. If the star collapses, the following explosion is known as an electron capture supernova. In this article, we give a brief overview on the development of idea in the presupernova evolution and the hydrodynamics behaviour of electron capture supernovae. Using standard stellar evolutionary models that show rather high ignition density, we show that the collapse can occur in a wide range of model parameter. However, future study remains important. We also review the possible observables of electron capture supernovae and discuss their applications to the light curve model for the Crab supernova 1054.
The physical origin of Type-I (hydrogen-less) superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose luminosities are 10 to 500 times higher than normal core-collapse supernovae, remains still unknown. Thanks to their brightness, SLSNe-I would be useful probes of distant Universe. For the power source of the light curves of SLSNe-I, radioactive-decays, magnetars, and circumstellar interactions have been proposed, although no definitive conclusions have been reached yet. Since most of light curve studies have been based on simplified semi-analytic models, we have constructed multi-color light curve models by means of detailed radiation hydrodynamical calculations for various mass of stars including very massive ones and large amount of mass loss. We compare the rising time, peak luminosity, width, and decline rate of the model light curves with observations of SLSNe-I and obtain constraints on their progenitors and explosion mechanisms. We particularly pay attention to the recently reported double peaks of the light curves. We discuss how to discriminate three models, relevant models parameters, their evolutionary origins, and implications for the early evolution of the Universe.
The properties of the first generation of stars and their supernova (SN) explosions remain unknown due to the lack of their actual observations. Pop III stars may have been very massive and predicted to be exploded as pair-instability SNe, but the observed metal-poor stars show the abundance patterns which are more consistent with yields of core-collapse SNe. We study the multicolor light curves for a metal-free core-collapse SN models (massive stars of 25-100 solar mass range) to determine the indicators for the detection and identification of first generation SNe. We use mixing-fallback supernova explosion models which explain the observed abundance patterns of metal poor stars. Numerical calculations of the multicolor light curves are performed using the multigroup radiation hydrodynamic code STELLA. The calculated light curves of metal-free SNe are compared with our calculations of non-zero metallicity models and observed SNe.
We perform SPH simulations coupled with nuclear reactions to follow tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). We consider an oxygen-neon-magnesium (ONeMg) WD with 1.2M⊙ as well as a helium (He) WD with 0.3M⊙, and a carbon-oxygen (CO) WD with 0.6M⊙. Our WD models have different numbers of SPH particles, N, up to a few 10 million. We find that nucleosynthesis does not converge against N even for N > 107. For all the WDs, the amount of radioactive nuclei, such as 56Ni, decreases with increasing N. Nuclear reactions might be extinguished for infinitely large N. Our results show that these kinds of TDEs, if solely powered by radioactive decays, are much dimmer optical transients similar to Type Ia supernovae as previously suggested.
We summarise recent developments in modelling SN 1987A including the progenitor’s evolution, explosive nucleosynthesis, optical, X- and γ-ray light curves, and dust formation. The distribution of heavy elements in the ejecta is inferred from the light curves. The pre-peak optical light curve as well as early emergence of X- and γ-ray indicate the mixing of 56Ni into the hydrogen-rich envelope. The plateau-like peak of the optical light curve is well reproduced if hydrogen is mixed into the deep core. The flat X-ray light curve observed by Ginga would be due to the clumpy structure of the core. The progenitor’s blue-red-blue evolution and nitrogen abundance suggest that the progenitor’s hydrogen-rich envelope had mass Menv = 7 − 11 M⊙ and was almost completely mixed.
We review the recent results of the nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars. We examine how those yields are affected by some hydrodynamical effects during the supernova explosions, namely, explosion energies from those of hypernovae to faint supernovae, mixing and fallback of processed materials, asphericity, etc. Those parameters in the supernova nucleosynthesis models are constrained from observational data of supernovae and metal-poor stars. The elemental abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor stars show some peculiarities relative to the solar abundance pattern, which suggests the important contributions of hypernovae and faint supernovae in the early chemical enrichment of galaxies. These constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis are taken into account in the latest yield table for chemical evolution modeling.
We review emission processes within the supernova (SN) ejecta. Examples of the application of the theory to observational data are presented. The emission processes and thermal condition within the SN ejecta change as a function of time, and multi-epoch observations are important to obtain comprehensive views. Through the analyses, we can constrain the progenitor radius, compositions as a function of depth, ejecta properties, explosion asymmetry and so on. Multi-frequency follow-up is also important, including radio synchrotron emissions and the inverse Compton effect, γ-ray emissions from radioactive decay of newly synthesized materials. The optical data are essential to make the best use of the multi-frequency data.
Origins of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by recent SN surveys are still not known well. One idea to explain the huge luminosity is the collision of dense CSM and SN ejecta. If SN ejecta is surrounded by dense CSM, the kinetic energy of SN ejecta is efficiently converted to radiation energy, making them very bright. To see how well this idea works quantitatively, we performed numerical simulations of collisions of SN ejecta and dense CSM by using one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA and obtained light curves (LCs) resulting from the collision. First, we show the results of our LC modeling of SLSN 2006gy. We find that physical parameters of dense CSM estimated by using the idea of shock breakout in dense CSM (e.g., Chevalier & Irwin 2011, Moriya & Tominaga 2012) can explain the LC properties of SN 2006gy well. The dense CSM's radius is about 1016 cm and its mass about 15 M⊙. It should be ejected within a few decades before the explosion of the progenitor. We also discuss how LCs change with different CSM and SN ejecta properties and origins of the diversity of H-rich SLSNe. This can potentially be a probe to see diversities in mass-loss properties of the progenitors. Finally, we also discuss a possible signature of SN ejecta-CSM interaction which can be found in H-poor SLSN.
We present a study of the early UV/Optical emission of the stripped-envelope supernovae based on a one-dimensional, Lagrangian model that solves the hydrodynamics and radiation transport in an expanding ejecta. The models are compared with observations to constrain the physical properties of the progenitor star, such as radius and mixing of radioactive nickel synthesized during the explosion. In particular, we present models for the early emission of the type IIb SN 2011dh and the Type Ib SN 2008D.
After the Big Bang, production of heavy elements in the early Universe takes place in the first stars and their supernova explosions. The nature of the first supernovae, however, has not been well understood. The signature of nucleosynthesis yields of the first supernovae can be seen in the elemental abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor stars. Interestingly, those abundance patterns show some peculiarities relative to the solar abundance pattern, which should provide important clues to understanding the nature of early generations of supernovae. We review the recent results of the nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars. We examine how those yields are affected by some hydrodynamical effects during the supernova explosions, namely, explosion energies from those of hypernovae to faint supernovae, mixing and fallback of processed materials, asphericity, etc. Those parameters in the supernova nucleosynthesis models are constrained from observational data of supernovae and metal-poor stars.
We review some recent developments in theoretical studies on the connection between the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the explosion mechanisms. (1) DD-subCh: In the merging of double C+O white dwarfs (DD scenario), if the carbon detonation is induced near the white dwarf (WD) surface in the early dynamical phase, it could result in the (effectively) sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosion. (2) DD-Ch: If no surface C-detonation is ignited, the WD could grow until the Chandrasekhar mass is reached, but the outcome depends on whether the quiescent carbon shell burning is ignited and burns C+O into O+Ne+Mg. (3) SD-subCh: In the single degenerate (SD) scenario, if the He shell-flashes grow strong to induce a He detonation, it leads to the sub-Chandra explosion. (4) SD-Ch: If the He-shell flashes are not strong enough, they still produce interesting amounts of Si and S near the surface of the C+O WD before the explosion. In the Chandra mass explosion, the central density is high enough to produce electron capture elements, e.g., stable 58Ni. Observations of the emission lines of Ni in the nebular spectra provides useful diagnostics of the sub-Chandra vs. Chandra issue. The recent observations of relatively low velocity carbon near the surface of SNe Ia provide also an interesting constraint on the explosion models.
Some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are suggested to have progenitor white dwarfs (WDs) with mass of up to 2.4–2.8 M⊙, highly exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass limit. We present a new single degenerate (SD) model for SNe Ia progenitors, in which the WD mass can increase by accretion up to 2.3 (2.7) M⊙ from the initial value of 1.1 (1.2) M⊙. The results are consistent with high luminosity SNe Ia such as SN 2003fg, SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, and SN 2009dc. There are three characteristic mass ranges of exploding WDs. In an extreme massive case, differentially rotating WDs explode as a SNe Ia soon after the WD mass exceeds 2.4 M⊙ because of a secular instability at T/|W|~0.14. For a mid mass range of MWD=1.5–2.4 M⊙, which is supported by differential rotation, it takes some spinning-down time until carbon is ignited to induce an SN Ia explosion. For a lower mass range of MWD=1.38–1.5 M⊙, they can be supported by rigid rotation until the angular momentum is lost. We also suggest the ultra super-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia are born in young and low metallicity environments.
Studying a multi-dimensional structure of supernovae (SNe) gives important constraints on the mechanism of the SN explosion. Polarization measurement is one of the most powerful methods to study the explosion geometry of extragalactic SNe. Especially, Type Ib/c SNe are the ideal targets because the core of the explosion is bare. We have performed spectropolarimetric observations of Type Ib/c SNe with the Subaru telescope. We detect a rotation of the polarization angle across the line, which is seen as a loop in the Q - U plane. This indicates that axisymmetry is broken in the SN ejecta. Adding our new data to the sample of stripped-envelope SNe with high-quality spectropolarimetric data, five SNe out of six show a loop in the Q - U plane. This implies that the SN explosion commonly has a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional geometry.
Massive stars are thought to play important roles in the early evolution of the Universe. In this paper, we first classify the final fates of massive stars into 7 cases according to their mass ranges. These variations of the final fate may correspond to the observed large diversities of supernova properties, such as extremely faint and extremely luminous (superluminous) supernovae, and the extremely energetic hypernovae. We then focus on the properties of the peculiar superluminous Type Ic supernova 1999as. We examine radioactive decay models, magnetar models, and circumstellar interaction models for the light curve of SN 1999as. We find that these models are not quite successful, and thus it is crucially important to improve these models to clarify the final fates of massive stars.
We investigate the lowest mass stars that produce Type-II supernovae, motivated by recent results showing that a large fraction of type-II supernova progenitors for which there are direct detections display unexpectedly low luminosity (for a review see e.g. Smartt 2009). There are three potential evolutionary channels leading to this fate. Alongside the standard ‘massive star’ Fe-core collapse scenario we investigate the likelihood of electron capture supernovae (EC-SNe) from super-AGB (S-AGB) stars in their thermal pulse phase, from failed massive stars for which neon burning and other advanced burning stages fail to prevent the star from contracting to the critical densities required to initiate rapid electron-capture reactions and thus the star's collapse. We find it indeed possible that both of these relatively exotic evolutionary channels may be realised but it is currently unclear for what proportion of stars. Ultimately, the supernova light curves, explosion energies, remnant properties (see e.g. Knigge et al. 2011) and ejecta composition are the quantities desired to establish the role that these stars at the lower edge of the massive star mass range play.
We review the properties of supernovae (SNe) as a function of the progenitor's mass M. (1) Mup - 10 M⊙ stars are super-AGB stars and resultant electron capture SNe may be Faint supernovae like Type IIn SN 2008S. (2) 10 - 12 M⊙ stars undergo Fe-core collapse to form neutron stars (NSs) and Faint supernovae. (3) 12 M⊙ - MBN stars undergo Fe-core collapse to form NSs and normal core-collapse supernovae. (4) MBN - 90 M⊙ stars undergo Fe-core collapse to form Black Holes. Resultant supernovae are bifurcate into Hypernovae and Faint supernovae. The observed properties of SN 2008ha can be explained with this type of Faint supernovae. (5) 90 - 140 M⊙ stars produce Luminous SNe, like SNe 2007bi and 2006gy. (6) 140 - 300 M⊙ stars become pair-instability supernovae which could be Luminous supernovae (SNe 2007bi and 2006gy). (7) Very massive stars with M ≳ 300 M⊙ undergo core-collapse to form intermediate mass black holes. Some SNe could be more Luminous supernovae (like SN 2006gy).
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by supernova (SN) explosions of population (Pop) III stars. The history of chemical evolution is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We investigate the properties of nucleosynthesis in Pop III SNe by comparing their yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on (1) jet-induced SNe with various properties of the jets, especially energy deposition rates [Ėdep = (0.3 − 1500) × 1051 ergs s−1], and (2) SNe of stars with various main-sequence masses (Mms = 13 − 50M⊙) and explosion energies [E = (1 − 40) × 1051ergs]. The varieties of Pop III SNe can explain the observations of the EMP stars: (1) higher [C/Fe] for lower [Fe/H] and (2) trends of abundance ratios [X/Fe] against [Fe/H].
We investigate the evolution of dust formed in Population III supernovae (SNe) by considering its transport and processing by sputtering within the SN remnants (SNRs). We find that the fate of dust grains within SNRs heavily depends on their initial radii aini. For Type II SNRs expanding into the ambient medium with density of nH,0 = 1 cm−3, grains of aini < 0.05 μm are detained in the shocked hot gas and are completely destroyed, while grains of aini > 0.2 μm are injected into the surrounding medium without being significantly destroyed. Grains with aini = 0.05–0.2 μm are finally trapped in the dense shell behind the forward shock. We show that the grains piled up in the dense shell enrich the gas up to 10−6–10−4Z⊙, high enough to form low-mass stars with 0.1–1 M⊙. In addition, [Fe/H] in the dense shell ranges from −6 to −4.5, which is in good agreement with the ultra-metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −4. We suggest that newly formed dust in a Population III SN can have great impact on the stellar mass and elemental composition of Population II.5 stars formed in the shell of the SNR.
We review the final stages of stellar evolution, supernova properties, and chemical yields as a function of the progenitor's mass. (1) 8 - 10 M⊙ stars are super-AGB stars when the O+Ne+Mg core collapses due to electron capture. These AGB-supernovae may constitute an SN 2008S-like sub-class of Type IIn supernovae. These stars produce little α-elements and Fe-peak elements, but are important sources of Zn and light p-nuclei. (2) 10 - 90 M⊙ stars undergo Fe-core collapse. Nucleosynthesis in aspherical explosions is important, as it can well reproduce the abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor stars. (3) 90 - 140 M⊙ stars undergo pulsational nuclear instabilities at various nuclear burning stages, including O and Si-burning. (4) Very massive stars with M ≳ 140 M⊙ either become pair-instability SNe, or undergo core-collapse to form intermediate mass black holes if the mass loss is small enough.