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From 2014 to 2020, we compiled radiocarbon ages from the lower 48 states, creating a database of more than 100,000 archaeological, geological, and paleontological ages that will be freely available to researchers through the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database. Here, we discuss the process used to compile ages, general characteristics of the database, and lessons learned from this exercise in “big data” compilation.
Numerous barriers to maintaining infection control practices through the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) exist in the emergency department (ED). This study examined the knowledge, self-reported behaviours, and barriers to compliance with infection control practices and the use of PPE in Canadian pediatric EDs.
A self-administered survey instrument consisting of 21 questions was developed and piloted for this study. The survey was mailed to all individuals listed in the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada database of physicians practicing pediatric emergency medicine in Canada.
A total of 186 physicians were surveyed, and 123 (66%) participated. Twenty-two percent of participants reported that they had never received PPE training and 32% had not been trained in the previous 2 years. Fifty-three percent reported being very or somewhat comfortable with their knowledge of transmission-based isolation practices. Participants were correct on a mean of 4.9 of 11 knowledge-based questions (SD 1.7). For scenarios assessing self-reported use of PPE, participants selected answers that reflected PPE use in accordance with national infection control standards in a mean of 1.0 of 6 scenarios (SD 1.0). Participants reported that they would be more likely to use PPE if patients were clearly identified prior to physician assessment, equipment was accessible, and PPE use was made a priority in their ED.
Knowledge and self-reported adherence to recommended infection control practices among Canadian pediatric emergency physicians is suboptimal. Early identification of patients requiring PPE, convenient access to PPE, and improved education regarding isolation and PPE practices may improve adherence.
1) To describe injuries experienced by the male prisoner population in the Kingston, Ontario area, and to compare them with those observed in the general population; and 2) to compare the incidence and patterns of prisoner injuries seen in emergency departments (EDs) before and after the introduction of a prison injury triage system.
A chart review.
The catchment area surrounding 2 hospital-based EDs in Kingston, Ontario, which includes 8 federal and provincial prisons for adult males.
Injuries to male prisoners (ages 18–75 years) who were treated in the ED during 1996–98 were compared with injuries to the general male population of the same age range. An on-site emergency care triage system was introduced to area prisons in 1993. Prisoner injuries seen in the ED during 1996–98 were compared with those seen during a similar period prior to the introduction of the triage system (1981–84). Available comparators included patient demographics, disposition, intent and nature of injury, the need for surgery, and lengths of hospital stay.
148 prisoner injuries were identified for 1996–98. Prisoner injuries seen in the ED were relatively severe when compared with the general male population, as indicated by the higher frequency of fractures (31.8% prisoner vs. 13.4% general, p < 0.001), blunt head injuries (10.1% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001), hospital admissions (42.6% vs. 4.1%, p < 0.001) and deaths (2.7% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001). Since the introduction of the triage system there has been a reduction in the rate of prisoner injuries seen in local hospital EDs (6.1/100/yr [before] vs. 1.6/100/yr [after], p < 0.001). There has been an increase in the relative severity of prisoner injuries seen in the EDs as indicated by the increased hospital admission rate (42.6% vs. 22.7%, p < 0.001), increased rate of surgical intervention (27.7% vs. 12.1%, p < 0.001), and increased length of hospital stay (4.0 days vs. 2.1 days, p < 0.05). The mortality rate has remained low and unchanged (0.7% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.99).
The introduction of the new triage system appeared to be associated with a decrease in the total number of ED visits by prisoners. The relative acuity of prisoner injuries seen in the EDs appeared to increase following introduction of the triage system.
Aviation is becoming more and more reliant on information held in electronic databases for flight planning and for en route navigation use whilst airborne. Twenty or more years ago, aircraft were flight-planned along canned routes developed by specialist navigation departments with information derived from charts, flight guides and from the source Aeronautical Information Publications, the AIPS, themselves. The data was then output in the form of a paper flight plan. The move toward computerization occurred in the mid 1970s and the early systems relied on the construction of waypoint to waypoint routes. Today, aircraft are planned to fly on canned or random routes based on airway to airway segments dependent on characteristics derived from an aeronautical database. Though correlation with paper data exists, the industry has moved a significant way along the path to database dependence for ground-based flight planning. Moreover, the move towards reliance is not limited to the ground alone for, in the case of British Airways at least, all aircraft are equipped with some form of electronic navigation database. Few airlines, if any, with the notable exception of Swissair, have invested in the creation of a comprehensive global navigation database. The costs of creating, maintaining and verifying such a product are more than even large and relatively successful airlines are willing to pay. Instead, they buy in the required ground and air systems products from Jeppesen, Swissair, Racal and the rest. They procure a service secure in the knowledge that the data has been collated, verified and authenticated before publication and use. However, is this reliance misplaced perhaps?
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