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We have developed the bispectral electroencephalography (BSEEG) method for detection of delirium and prediction of poor outcomes.
To improve the BSEEG method by introducing a new EEG device.
In a prospective cohort study, EEG data were obtained and BSEEG scores were calculated. BSEEG scores were filtered on the basis of standard deviation (s.d.) values to exclude signals with high noise. Both non-filtered and s.d.-filtered BSEEG scores were analysed. BSEEG scores were compared with the results of three delirium screening scales: the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS) and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS). Additionally, the 365-day mortalities and the length of stay (LOS) in the hospital were analysed.
We enrolled 279 elderly participants and obtained 620 BSEEG recordings; 142 participants were categorised as BSEEG-positive, reflecting slower EEG activity. BSEEG scores were higher in the CAM-ICU-positive group than in the CAM-ICU-negative group. There were significant correlations between BSEEG scores and scores on the DRS and the DOSS. The mortality rate of the BSEEG-positive group was significantly higher than that of the BSEEG-negative group. The LOS of the BSEEG-positive group was longer compared with that of the BSEEG-negative group. BSEEG scores after s.d. filtering showed stronger correlations with delirium screening scores and more significant prediction of mortality.
We confirmed the usefulness of the BSEEG method for detection of delirium and of delirium severity, and prediction of patient outcomes with a new EEG device.
Exercise stress echocardiography and layer-specific strains are emerging as important tools for cardiac assessment. This study was aimed to evaluate layer-specific strains and torsion parameters during exercise in order to investigate the characteristics of cardiac dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and to detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction.
Materials and Methods:
Thirteen patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (median age, 17.3 [interquartile range, 14.5–22.9] years; 6 males) and 13 controls (median age, 28.5 [interquartile range, 27.6–31.6] years; 13 males) underwent echocardiography at rest and during supine exercise. Layer-specific longitudinal strain and circumferential strain of three myocardial layers (endocardium, midmyocardium, and epicardium), torsion, and untwisting rate were measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.
Peak endocardial papillary circumferential strain (−21.1 ± 2.6% vs. −25.8 ± 3.8%, p = 0.007), midmyocardial apical circumferential strain (−11.1 ± 4.0% vs. −15.6 ± 3.2%, p = 0.001), epicardial apical circumferential strain (−11.1 ± 4.0% vs. −15.6 ± 3.2%, p = 0.021), and torsion (8.9 ± 6.0 vs. 14.9 ± 4.8 degree, p = 0.021) were significantly lower in the repaired tetralogy of Fallot group than in the control group during exercise, though no significant difference was found between patients and controls at rest.
Analysis of layer-specific strains and torsion parameters during exercise could detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, which might reflect potential myocardial damage, at a stage where these parameters have normal values at rest. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
Local health facilities play a critical role in mitigating the deterioration of health after catastrophic disasters. However, limited information is available on clinic damage. Therefore, the National Institute of Public Health conducted surveillance on clinic damage after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) to identify risk factors.
A cross-sectional study using a paper-based questionnaire was conducted that targeted 728 clinics located in coastal areas in the 3 prefectures most affected by the GEJE.
The risk of building damage was inversely correlated with distance from the coast, whereas the risk of ceasing operations was significantly correlated with building damage and some specialties of clinics, namely, internal medicine and pediatrics.
In mountainous countries like Japan, clinics often need to be built in coastal areas, where the majority of residents live. This surveillance revealed that clinics built in readily accessible locations and that provide care with high needs are more likely to get damaged by tsunamis. As clinics are often the frontline health facilities in disaster settings, local disaster plans need to include plans to reinforce disaster preparedness among clinics. For effective planning and resource allocation, nationwide hazard vulnerability analysis using a global standard will be helpful. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 291–295)
We developed a multiplex PCR DNA marker for quick and easy identification of the AAGG-genome timopheevii lineage, including Triticum timopheevii, Triticum araraticum and hexaploid Triticum zhukovskyi (AAAmAmGG), and the AABB-genome emmer wheat lineage, including Triticum durum, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum dicoccoides. Distinguishing between tetraploid AAGG- and AABB-genome wheat species based on morphology is known to be difficult. This multiplex PCR system is based on the simultaneous PCR amplification of two chloroplast regions, matK and rbcL. The matK region molecularly distinguishes the two lineages, whereas the rbcL region is a positive control amplicon. We also examined whether the simple sequence repeat is a fixed mutation within species, using genetic resources in the collection of KOMUGI, Kyoto University, which comprises accessioned species collected across diverse geographical areas. The multiplex PCR marker distinguished AAGG from AABB species with complete accuracy.
A specific type of buried defect in lamellar phase diblock copolymer was studied by experiments and simulations using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). The defects had 3-dimensional structures and created hexagonally arranged holes. They existed not only on the substrate with the guide structures but in fingerprints. The simulation results suggested that one of the causes of the defects is mismatch of the surface affinity of the neutral layer.
This paper introduces a fabrication method to achieve sub-15 nm line-and-space (L/S) patterns by combining grapho- and chemo-epitaxy using poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS-b-PMMA). The fabrication method is simple, since it eliminates photoresist stripping and also does not require any special materials to form pinning patterns. In this process, the ridges formed on spin-on-glass (SOG) surface work as physical guides and the photoresists on them are utilized as a pinning layer. Fine PS-b-PMMA L/S patterns were obtained in sufficient critical dimension (CD) range of the guide patterns that corresponded to the 15% dose margin using ArF immersion lithography. 3-dimensional grid defects were found to be the origin of the short defects. The half-pitch (hp) 15 nm L/S patterns were transferred successfully to SOG/spin-on-carbon (SOC) stacked substrate.
We also describe fabrication of sub-10 nm L/S patterns using a high-chi block copolymer (BCP).
It is necessary to assess the impact of nitrate salts and their reduction products (e.g. NH3(aq)/NH4+) contained in low-level radioactive waste generated from nuclear reprocessing process for the safety assessment of geological disposal of the waste. In the present study, sorption behavior of Ni and Pd on pumice tuff was investigated in the presence of NH3(aq)/NH4+. Under various NH3(aq)/NH4+ concentration, pH and ionic strength conditions, distribution coefficient (Kd) of Ni and Pd on pumice tuff was determined by a batch experiment. For Ni system, the Kd values showed no significant dependence on initial NH4+ concentration ([NH4+]ini < 1 M) in neutral pH region, which agreed with the prediction from thermodynamic data. For Pd system, the Kd values decreased with an increase of [NH4+]ini, suggesting the formation of stable ammine complexes (Pd(NH3)m2+ (m: 1 – 4)). The obtained Kd values for Ni and Pd were analyzed using a surface complexation model. By taking complexes predicted by thermodynamic data into account, sorption behavior of Ni and Pd in the presence of NH3(aq)/NH4+ were well explained.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
The UV/mm-wave technique composed of ultraviolet photoexcitation and millimeter wave probe was examined with photoconductivity amplitude (PCA) to characterize the slight subsurface damage induced by implanting H2+ ion into the subsurface at sub micron depth of Si wafers. The identical samples were also characterized using pulse photoconductivity amplitude (PPCA) obtained by another technique which is specified by blue laser photoexcitation and microwave probe. PCA decreased with increase of ion dose, which coincided well with the result in PPCA. PPCA decreased with increase of implantation energy as 90 to 120 keV, but PCA increased at 120keV. Both PCA and PPCA well reflected the damage at sub micron depth. PCA reflected damage in shallower depth compared to PPCA.
We have characterized subsurface damage profiles of hydrogen-ion implanted silicon wafers by using a non-contact UV/Millimeter-Wave Technique and Light Scattering Topography (LST). A subsurface damage profile that was less than one micrometer was controlled by chemical mechanical polishing after hydrogen-ion implantation. On the area with the subsurface damage, the Photoconductivity Amplitude (PCA) signals measured by the UV/Millimeter-Wave Technique drastically weakened and the haze values measured by LST increased. A clear correlation has been found between the peak depth of the subsurface damage and the haze value. The spectral analyses of the surface images obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were carried out in order to separate the influences of surface micro roughness and subsurface damage on the haze value. The contribution of subsurface damage to the haze value can be formulated as the convolution of the damage profile and the transparency function of the incident laser in silicon crystal.
A new type of scanning X-ray diffracto-microscope (SXDM) / X-ray powder diffractometer (XPD) which uses a converged incident beam, was designed, manufactured, and some of its basic characteristics were examined. The optical system consists of asymmetric reflection type curved crystal monochromators for both incident and reflection beams, a detector (FSPC, X-ray film, IP, nuclear plate), a translation mechanism for the specimen and also for the detector.
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