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We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders.
To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder.
Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n = 215).
GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence.
GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients.
The IAU Commission 52 “Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy” (RIFA) has been established during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU (Prague, 2006). The general scientific goals of the Commission were identified as:
• clarify geometrical and dynamical concepts of Fundamental Astronomy within a relativistic framework,
• provide adequate mathematical and physical formulations to be used in Fundamental Astronomy,
• deepen the understanding of the above results among astronomers and students in astronomy,
• promote research needed to accomplish these tasks.
The IAU Commission 52 “Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy” (RIFA) has been established during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU (Prague, 2006) to centralize the efforts in the field of Applied Relativity and to provide an official forum for corresponding discussions.
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital heart defect. Cardiac catheterization remains the standard means of diagnosis. Our purpose in this study is to emphasize the importance of assessing the electrocardiogram when making the diagnosis, in addition to taking note of transthoracic echocardiographic findings. We also analyzed the sensitivity of each parameter under investigation.
Methods and Results
Between June, 1999, and March, 2007, we studied 9 patients, 6 males and 3 females, with a mean age of 3.02 years, in whom anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk was suspected subsequent to transthoracic echocardiographic examination. We examined their electrocardiograms, and undertook cardiac catheterization. In all patients, the transthoracic echocardiogram had shown retrograde flow into the pulmonary trunk, with the left coronary artery arising from pulmonary trunk, along with a dilated right coronary artery, or intercoronary collateral vessels. In 8 patients, the electrocardiogram showed deep Q wave in leads I and aVL, with depression of the ST segments over lead V4 through 6, or inversion of the T waves in leads I, II, and aVL. In the remaining patient, the electrocardiogram showed incomplete right bundle branch block. Later, cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis in 8 patients, but the other patient was shown to have the right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary trunk.
By combining transthoracic echocardiography with study of the electrocardiogram, it is possible to provide accurate evaluation of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk.
Described is a method for preparing crystalline silver nanorods in water, in the absence of a surfactant or polymer to direct nanoparticle growth, and without externally added seed crystallites. The procedure used is one in which a silver salt is reduced to silver metal by sodium citrate under the influence of microwave irradiation. Key aspects for the production of these nanorods are the use of a closed-chamber microwave heating system that allows precise temperature control and judicious choice of the citrate concentration. This novel finding demonstrates the utility of microwave-assisted synthesis and provides a promising method for the preparation of silver nanorods.
A 4Mb magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) with a novel magnetic free layer and toggle switching mode is presented. The new free layer uses a balanced synthetic-antiferromagnet trilayer structure and a novel write pulse sequence to provide robust switching performance with immunity from ½-select disturbs. This new mode greatly improves the switching performance of the MRAM as compared to conventional MRAM. The intrinsic reliability of the magnetoresistive tunnel junction (MTJ) and the metal interconnect system of MRAM are two other areas of great interest due to the new materials involved. Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and resistance drift were the two main failure mechanisms identified for intrinsic memory bit reliability. Results indicated that a lifetime over 10 years is achievable under the operating conditions. Finally data retention is demonstrated over times that are orders of magnitude longer than 10 years.
The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and
mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA were amplified by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA extracted from adult tissue of four species of Scylla spp. and the first zoeal stages of
S. serrata, S. paramamosain and S. olivacea as template. Using the ITS-1 region, variation in product
fragment length was found to be useful for distinguishing S. serrata and
S. olivacea from two other species. The other two species (S. paramamosain and S. tranquebarica) could be
identified using the restriction endonuclease Hha I. Using 16S rDNA, all four
species were identified using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism
(RFLP) by double digestion with DraI and HindIII. These genetic markers can be
used for hybridization breeding studies and in field studies of larval and
juvenile mud crabs of the genus Scylla.
Animals use many different mechanisms to navigate in space. The characteristics of the mechanism employed are usually well-suited to the demands of each particular navigational problem. For example, desert ants navigating in a relatively featureless environment use path integration, birds homing or migrating over long distances use compasses of various sorts, salmon returning to their natal stream home on olfactory cues. The study of navigation requires the study of many different taxa confronting different problems. One interesting case involves scatter-hoarding species that use memory to relocate their hidden food. Such animals face the problem of remembering many locations simultaneously. Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are an excellent example, and this paper considers their possible use of multiple bearings from landmarks.
Shepard's exponential law provides a functional explanation of generalization. The account complements the more common mechanistic models. The elegant and powerful analyses answer one of Tinbergen's (1963) four whys of behavior: a benefit conferred on the animal by generalizing in this way. A complete account might address evolutionary and developmental questions in addition to mechanistic and functional ones. [Shepard]
We report on the fabrication, characterization, and processing of boron nitride films for use in high temperature applications such as field passivation, capping layers for thermal annealing of SiC, and protecting metallic filaments from their working environments. The BN films have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition and spray techniques. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The BN films deposited in the temperature range of 200-500°C have been found to be poorly crystalline, whereas the films fabricated above 600°C have been found to be microcrystalline. The as-deposited films were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1700°C in order to densify the films and study the applicability of the coatings. An AlN buffer layer was also applied in a few cases to improve chemical bonding with the substrate. Adhesion of the films with the heater components was greatly improved for high temperature annealed samples due to good interfacial bonding with the substrate material. Our results on the properties of BN films with an emphasis on characterization, processing, and implications for high temperature applications are discussed.