To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Uplift of the overriding plate at a subduction zone denotes interseismic strain accumulation, which is subsequently released during a megathrust earthquake. Although most interseismic strain is thought to be released elastically, observations of uplifted coastal regions at subduction zones worldwide indicate that some strain may result in permanent uplift. The Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay (Washington, USA) coastal region of the Cascadia subduction zone hosts flights of marine terraces testifying to late Pleistocene rock uplift. Our new detailed mapping of the marine terraces recognizes nine new units, including estuarine and fluvial sediments. Luminescence dating, relative age based on soil maturity and terrace elevation, and an evaluation of previous ages from fossil shells collectively constrain the probable ages of three estuarine units to sea-level high stands during Marine Isotope Stages 5a, 5c, and 5e. We estimate an average uplift rate of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the terraced estuarine units, consistent with other Pleistocene uplift and incision rates in Cascadia. When compared with observed interseismic vertical deformation, these rates suggest that about one-tenth of interseismic strain may become permanent. The values are permissible within the uncertainties of uplift based on regional estimates of interseismic vertical strain rates and of coseismic subsidence.
Schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in theory of mind (ToM). We examined group differences in performance on a ToM-related test and associations with an estimated IQ.
Participants [N = 1227, SZ (n = 563), ASD (n = 159), and controls (n = 505), 32.2% female] completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and assessments of cognitive ability. Associations between IQ and group on RMET were investigated with regression analyses.
SZ (d = 0.73, p < 0.001) and ASD (d = 0.37, p < 0.001) performed significantly worse on the RMET than controls. SZ performed significantly worse than ASD (d = 0.32, p = 0.002). Adding IQ to the model, SZ (d = 0.60, p < 0.001) and ASD (d = 0.44, p < 0.001) continued to perform significantly worse than controls, but no longer differed from each other (d = 0.13, p = 0.30). Small significant negative correlations between symptom severity and RMET performance were found in SZ (PANSS positive: r = −0.10, negative: r = −0.11, both p < 0.05). A small non-significant negative correlation was found for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores and RMET in ASD (r = −0.08, p = 0.34).
SZ and ASD are characterized by impairments in RMET. IQ contributed significantly to RMET performance and accounted for group differences in RMET between SZ and ASD. This suggests that non-social cognitive ability needs to be included in comparative studies of the two disorders.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are separate neurodevelopmental disorders that are both characterized by difficulties in social cognition and social functioning. Due to methodological confounds, the degree of similarity in social cognitive impairments across these two disorders is currently unknown. This study therefore conducted a comprehensive comparison of social cognitive ability in ASD and SCZ to aid efforts to develop optimized treatment programs.
In total, 101 individuals with ASD, 92 individuals with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder, and 101 typically developing (TD) controls, all with measured intelligence in the normal range and a mean age of 25.47 years, completed a large battery of psychometrically validated social cognitive assessments spanning the domains of emotion recognition, social perception, mental state attribution, and attributional style.
Both ASD and SCZ performed worse than TD controls, and very few differences were evident between the two clinical groups, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 0.01 to 0.34. For those effects that did reach statistical significance, such as greater hostility in the SCZ group, controlling for symptom severity rendered them non-significant, suggesting that clinical distinctions may underlie these social cognitive differences. Additionally, the strength of the relationship between neurocognitive and social cognitive performance was of similar, moderate size for ASD and SCZ.
Findings largely suggest comparable levels of social cognitive impairment in ASD and SCZ, which may support the use of existing social cognitive interventions across disorders. However, future work is needed to determine whether the mechanisms underlying these shared impairments are also similar or if these common behavioral profiles may emerge via different pathways.
Group-exercise instructors are a vital social determinant of exercise enjoyment, attendance, and adherence. Instructors also affect the degree to which physical cultures are socially inclusive. In order to elucidate the roles that instructors play in affecting these outcomes, we conducted a scoping review. Scoping reviews are a preliminary method for assessing the breadth and depth of existing literature in order to identify key themes and gaps therein. Based on Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) framework, we identified 52 articles and book chapters, 33 of which were older-adult specific, using a university search engine that simultaneously searches multiple databases. We conceptually mapped the literature, which revealed instructors’ vital roles as: (1) constructors of group social cohesion, (2) cultural intermediaries, (3) competent practitioners, (4) leaders and communicators, and (5) educators. Of these, the instructor’s educative role lacks empirical attention. We conclude with implications for future research, practice, and policy.
This study investigated the state of gerontology content in health and social service education programs in Ontario, and readiness indicators for change among administrators and faculty. We conducted a survey of teaching faculty (n = 100) and deans or directors (n = 56) of 89 education programs, which revealed mixed evidence on readiness for change. Most respondents thought their programs were adequate but needed enhancement. However, they were unaware of published gerontological competencies with which to evaluate their curricula. Beliefs about capacity for change varied, with half the participants indicating that their programs had sufficient faculty expertise in gerontology and geriatrics. Factors influencing readiness for change include lack of gerontological expertise; need for institutional and management support; need for additional teaching resources; and recognizing the need for change. There is an opportunity, by committing resources and time, to capitalize on the faculty and administrators who thought their programs should improve.
Low, nearly continuous terraces of similar age are present along streams in drainage basins that range in size from Drift Creek (190 km2) to the Umpqua River (11,800 km2) in the Oregon Coast Range. Radiocarbon ages from near the bose of fluvial sediments underlying these terraces are clustered at about 9000-11,000 14C yr B.P. Beveled bedrock surfaces (straths) that underlie the fluvial sediments are 1-8 m above summer stream levels and are present along most of the nontidal reaches of the rivers that we studied. Where exposed, the bedrock straths are overlain by 2-11 m of fluvial sediment that consists of a bottom-stratum (channel) facies of sandy pebble-cobble gravel and a top-stratum (overbank) facies of sandy silt or silt. Eight radiocarbon ages from the fluvial sediments allow correlation of the lowest continuous terrace over a wide area and thus indicate that a regional aggradation episode occurred in Coast Range drainage basins during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The cause of such widespread aggradation is unknown but may be related to climate-induced changes in the frequency of evacuation of colluvium from hollows, which are common in all drainage basins in the region.
Flights of tectonically uplifted, late Quaternary marine terraces are preserved at several localities along the Oregon coast. Intervening coastal areas without marine terraces reflect net subsidence. These gaps in the coastal terrace record make it difficult to correlate terraces along the Pacific coast. To test the utility of soils in relative dating and correlation, two flights of marine terraces near Cape Blanco and Cape Arago were investigated. The terraces could be distinguished in each area from soil morphological properties and a quantitative index of soil development derived from field descriptions. The soils in the two areas show a progression in development from spodosols to spodosols underlain by clayey material to ultisols. The lowest two terraces at Cape Blanco, which have reported age estimates of 80,000 and 105,000 yr, are correlative with the lowest two terraces at Cape Arago. The fifth and oldest terrace at Cape Blanco has no equivalent at Cape Arago. Soil development indices for the third and fourth terraces at each area allow two alternative sets of correlations.
Comparison of histories of great earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis at eight coastal sites suggests plate-boundary ruptures of varying length, implying great earthquakes of variable magnitude at the Cascadia subduction zone. Inference of rupture length relies on degree of overlap on radiocarbon age ranges for earthquakes and tsunamis, and relative amounts of coseismic subsidence and heights of tsunamis. Written records of a tsunami in Japan provide the most conclusive evidence for rupture of much of the plate boundary during the earthquake of 26 January 1700. Cascadia stratigraphic evidence dating from about 1600 cal yr B.P., similar to that for the 1700 earthquake, implies a similarly long rupture with substantial subsidence and a high tsunami. Correlations are consistent with other long ruptures about 1350 cal yr B.P., 2500 cal yr B.P., 3400 cal yr B.P., 3800 cal yr B.P., 4400 cal yr B.P., and 4900 cal yr B.P. A rupture about 700–1100 cal yr B.P. was limited to the northern and central parts of the subduction zone, and a northern rupture about 2900 cal yr B.P. may have been similarly limited. Times of probable short ruptures in southern Cascadia include about 1100 cal yr B.P., 1700 cal yr B.P., 3200 cal yr B.P., 4200 cal yr B.P., 4600 cal yr B.P., and 4700 cal yr B.P. Rupture patterns suggest that the plate boundary in northern Cascadia usually breaks in long ruptures during the greatest earthquakes. Ruptures in southernmost Cascadia vary in length and recurrence intervals more than ruptures in northern Cascadia.
The Crescent City coastal plain is a low-lying surface of negligible relief that lies on the upper plate of the Cascadia subduction zone in northernmost California. Whereas coastal reaches to the north in southern Oregon and to the south near Cape Mendocino contain flights of deformed marine terraces from which a neotectonic history can be deduced, equivalent terraces on the Crescent City coastal plain are not as pronounced. Reexamination of the coastal plain revealed three late Pleistocene marine terraces, identified on the basis of subtle geomorphic boundaries and further delineated by differentiable degrees of soil development. The youngest marine terrace is preserved in the axial valley of a broad syncline, and the two older marine terraces face each other across the axial region. An active thrust fault, previously recognized offshore, underlies the coastal plain, and folding in the hanging wall of this thrust fault has dictated, through differential uplift, the depositional limits of each successive marine terrace unit. This study demonstrates the importance of local structures in coastal landscape evolution along tectonically active coastlines and exemplifies the utility of soil relative-age determinations to identify actively growing folds in landscapes of low relief.