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This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
Cobalt (Co) is essential for rumen microbial metabolism to synthesize methane, acetate and methionine. It also serves as a structural component of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. A study was conducted to determine if Co form (carbonate v. glucoheptonate) supplemented above the National Research Council requirements would improve digestibility of a low-quality forage diet and change serum cobalamin concentrations. Nineteen ruminally cannulated cows (577 ± 13 kg) were fed individually in a completely randomized experimental design. Cows were fed a grass hay diet that contained (79·2 g/kg crude protein, 565 g/kg total digestible nutrients, 633·2 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 874·2 g/kg dry matter) at a rate of 0·02% of body weight on a as fed basis for a 62-day study, which consisted of three periods; acclimation (AC), treatment (TR) and residual (RE). Measurements taken in the AC period were used as covariates for analysis in the TR and RE periods. Cows were stratified by age (5 ± 0·4 years) and lactational history, and assigned to receive 12·5 mg supplemental Co in one of two forms: (1) 27·2 mg of Co carbonate (CC, n = 11 cows) or (2) 50 mg of Co glucoheptonate (CGH, n = 8 cows). Supplement was administered daily via a gelatin capsule placed directly into the rumen 2 h after feeding. During the last 96 h of each period, forage digestibility was measured using an in situ nylon bag technique. Blood samples were collected 4 and 6 h following feeding, and 24 h before the end of each period. A treatment × period interaction was detected for in situ organic matter (OM) disappearance at 96 h; (TR period: 684 and 708 ± 81 g/kg; RE period: 676 and 668 ± 75 g/kg, for CC and CGH, respectively). Once inclusion of Co in the CGH group was removed, OM disappearance was reduced by 4·01% compared with 0·82% in the CC cows. The NDF disappearance (OM basis) was less for the TR compared with the RE at 48 h (629 and 652 ± 39 g/kg, respectively). However, by 96 h NDF disappearance was greater for TR than the RE (704 and 689 ± 44 g/kg; respectively). No differences were detected for cobalamin serum concentrations or rate of fibre fermentation. The outcomes of the current research signify that there may be a slight residual effect of Co supplementation on fermentation; there was also an indication that Co source may enhance the overall extent of fermentation.
It's not our job to toughen our children up to face a cruel and heartless world. It's our job to raise children who will make the world a little less cruel and heartless.
– L. R. Knost
The applied behavioral science (ABS) principles of actively caring for people (AC4P) are critical for effective childcare. Appropriate applications of these principles can dramatically improve behavior and the way caregivers teach children healthy, prosocial behavior. Many parents and caregivers use these principles already without knowing it. Others can benefit from learning the principles and their applications.
You may already be a parent or a teacher, or plan to care for children someday. Perhaps you work as a nanny or help your family by caring for younger siblings. Many careers involve working with children (e.g., teachers, healthcare professionals, and coaches). The ABS principles can be applied to all of these situations to make the work of caring for children more effective and enjoyable for both caregiver and child.
This chapter reviews the ways ABS can be used to benefit childcare. It describes how the key principles explained in Chapter 1, which have been effectively applied to the promotion of healthy behavior in the workplace, in healthcare facilities, and in schools, can be used every day in childcare situations. In addition, the most common childcare challenges are addressed, as are specific solutions provided by ABS.
Relationships between the ABS approach and healthy development are discussed throughout this chapter in order to make salient the connection between ABS principles and AC4P behavior. We focus on early childhood, addressing specific milestones and challenges in the care of children who are 3–8 years of age. Nonetheless, the ABS principles are critical to caring for children of all ages and in all stages of their development.
It's not until age 3 that children have the cognitive ability to learn from the ABS principles discussed here. Still, behavior management is certainly an important role for parents and caregivers of children under age 3. Discipline for children under age 3 consists essentially of ignoring unwanted behavior, distracting the child, and managing the environment to prevent unwanted behavior and ensure safety. The use of ABS strategies effectively in early childhood, as soon as children are developmentally ready, can lay the foundation for continued success in the future, from middle childhood to adolescence.
The future of the American West depends on sustainable water resource governance. A variety of uncertainties associated with limited freshwater supplies, population growth, land use change, drought, and climate change impacts present substantial challenges. To inform decision making, managers are adopting new techniques such as scenario planning to understand how water resources might change and what practices can support economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Scenario planning can be informed by understanding the normative future preferences of a variety of stakeholders, including decision makers, who influence water governance. This article presents a survey of central Arizona decision makers to understand their visions for a desirable future for the water system in terms of supply, delivery, demand, outflow, and crosscutting activities. Principle components analysis is used to identify patterns underlying responses about preferences for each domain of the system and correlation analysis is used to evaluate associations between themes across the domains. The results reveal two distinct visions for water in central Arizona—one in which water experts and policy makers pursue supply augmentation to serve metropolitan development, and another in which broadened public engagement is used in conjunction with policy tools to reduce water consumption, restore ecosystem services, and limit metropolitan expansion. The results of this survey will inform the development of a set of normative scenarios for use in exploratory modeling and anticipatory governance activities.