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A transmission surface plasmon resonance image (TSPRi) obtained with a plasmonic grating structure was investigated in combination with a smartphone camera. A substrate of a gold-coated CYTOP grating/glass slide showed the TSPR excitation wavelength of 675 nm at the incident light angle of 30°. The TSPRi acquired from a smartphone camera assembled with liquid crystal tunable filters corresponded with spectroscopic results. The sensitivity of this technique was 282/RIU. Due to changes in the sensitivity of the TSPRi intensity to the refractive index of the environment, this technique can be further developed for portable devices for sensor applications.
Detection of chlorpyrifos (CPF) using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced photoelectrochemical sensing system is demonstrated in this study. The presence of CPF was detected based on an increase in the short-circuit photocurrent when a sample is injected into the electrolyte at different concentrations. The short-circuit photocurrent signal was enhanced by both localized SPR of the gold nanoparticles and by the effects of grating-coupled propagating SPR. Using the hybrid SPR-enhancement system, CPF detection was achieved at concentrations as low as 7.5 nM. The proposed technique of leveraging a multifunctional photovoltaic effect can be used for a variety of sensing applications.
A novel and fundamental method was reported to judge states of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using the capacitance and the voltage of the cells that were estimated from the real-time currents and voltage characteristics of the cells. We measured the differential capacitance, that is, dQ/dV or delta Q/ delta V that is equal to the currents (I) divided by differential voltages (dV/dt) calculated from the current and the voltage characteristics of the cell during the charging/ discharging, where Q is the charge that flows through the cell, V is the voltage of the cell and t is time. It is thought that the capacitance decrease with the degradation of the cell because the effective area of the electrodes is decreasing due to formation of undesirable compounds. The differential capacitance in some specific voltage range for the LIBs was approximately directly proportional to the state of the degradation of the cell. Therefore, it is concluded that the novel method is very useful to judge the state of the LIBs.
We report the preparation and thermoelectric properties of oriented higher manganese silicide (HMS) with a composition of MnSi1.73 bulk. The grain alignment and densification were achieved by rotating high magnetic field and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques, respectively. The easy magnetization axis of MnSi1.73 was found to be c-axis, and the applied magnetic field of 2 T was strong enough to rotate the powder with a mean grain size of 1 μm. The c-axis of grains was oriented when applying the magnetic field, and the degree of orientation was further increased after heat treatment. However, a secondary phase that was mono manganese silicide (MnSi) was observed as a result of oxidation on the surface of synthesized powder. The electrical conductivity of the c-axis oriented specimen along the ab-plane was about 40% larger than that for sample processed only by SPS, while the Seebeck coefficient of oriented and nonoriented specimens showed similar values regardless of existence of the second phase. Consequently, the power factor of the c-axis oriented specimen along the ab-plane was enhanced by about 35% compared to the nonoriented one. The proposed approach is found to be very effective not only in obtaining the oriented materials with nonductility but also in enhancing the thermoelectricity.
We succeeded in fabricating c-axis (00l) oriented ZnO ceramics by using a rotating magnetic field and a subsequent sintering treatment. The degree of orientation in the green compact was about 0.5 along (00l) on the Lotgering scale. The degree of orientation increased to 0.99 after sintering at 1573 K. Particles can also be oriented in a static magnetic field, but along the direction of the a-axis or a,b-axes (h00), (hk0). These results show that selected axes can be oriented by controlling the magnetic field. Control of the crystal form in microstructures is expected to result in improvements in and better miniaturization of functional ceramics.
Emission light due to surface plasmon (SP) excitations has been investigated in Kretschmann configuration of prism/metal thin film/organic dye thin films by means of direct irradiation of a laser beam from air to the films. Emission light through the prism coincided with the resonant conditions of SP excitations in the configuration. It was thought that SPs on the metal surface were excited by luminescence of dye molecules close to the metal surface, and the SPs propagating along the metal surface were converted to the emission light according to the resonant conditions of SPs in the configuration. Intensities and spectra of the SP emission light through the prism strongly depended upon emission angles, nanostructures of dye films, the film thickness and mixture of two kinds of dyes.
Photoelectric properties have been investigated for the organic dye thin film cells utilizing surface plasmon (SP) excitation. The cells fabricated in this work had a prism/Al thin film/copper phtalocyanine (CuPc) thin film/Ag thin film structure, which was the Kretschmann configuration in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method. Since the CuPc thin film exhibits p-type conduction, the Schottky and Ohmic contacts can be obtained at the interfaces between the CuPc and Al thin films and between the CuPc and Ag thin films, respectively, and the cells used in this work show photoelectric properties. The ATR and short-circuit photocurrent properties have been simultaneously measured as a function of the incident angles of the laser beams. The experimental and calculated results of the ATR and short-circuit photocurrent properties and the optical absorptions of the organic dye layers were discussed. It was found that the photoelectric effect in the organic dye thin film cells the Kretschmann configuration in the ATR method was enhanced by the SP excitation.
A novel preparation method of thin films has been successfully developed by high-density ablation plasma produced by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method. The preparation is available with extremely high deposition rate (with cm/s), without heating the substrate, in a vacuum, with good stoichiometry. As an example, the preparation of phosphoresecent SrAl2O4:Eu, Dy thin films will be shown. Furthermore, a new method has been developed of the synthesis of ultrafine nanosize powders by use of microexplosion of pulsed wire discharge. As an example, the synthesis of NiFe2O4 powders will be shown, where two wires of nickel and iron were exploded by pulsed current. In addition, we have succeeded in the preparation of tungsten thin films within via holes in LSI by use of pulsed ion beam-evaporation method. In addition to the huge power per shot, a new machine has been developed of highly repetitive, pulsed power machine for the industrial applications.
Emission light through the prism has been investigated from the Kretschmann configuration of the prism/ Ag thin film/ rhodamine-B (RB) LB film in the resonant excitation of the attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurement. The emission light and the spectra strongly depended upon the emission angles where the light was observed. The emission properties corresponded to the dispersion relation of the resonant excitations of surface plasmons (SPs) in the ATR configuration. It was concluded that the emission light was caused by multiple excitations of SPs in the ATR configuration. It is thought that the phenomenon will be used as a new sensing device.
Short-circuit photocurrents (ISC) due to surface plasmon (SP) excitations have been investigated for the photoelectric cells using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of merocyanine (MC) dye. The MC dye exhibits p-type conduction, and the Schottky and Ohmic contacts are obtained at the interfaces between MC LB films and Al thin films and between MC LB films and Ag thin films, respectively. Since the Schottky diodes show the photoelectric effects, the Schottky photoelectric cells have been constructed. The cells with two kinds of structures, that is, prism/Al/MC/Ag (type I) and prism/MgF2/Al/MC/Ag (type II), have been prepared. In the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method, the types I and II have the Kretschmann and both the Kretschmann and Otto configurations, respectively. SP has been resonantly excited at the interface between Ag and air for the type I and at the interfaces between MgF2 and Al between Ag and air for the type II. The ATR and the ISC properties have been simultaneously measured as a function of the incident angles of the laser beams. The peaks of the ISC have corresponded to the resonant angles of the ATR curves. The electric fields and optical absorptions in the cells have been also calculated using the dielectric constants and the film thicknesses obtained from the ATR measurements. The calculated absorptions in the MC layers as a function of the incident angles have corresponded to the results of ISC. It has been estimated that the ISC for both types I and II could be enhanced by the excitations of SP in the ATR configurations.
In this report, we describe the photo-induced in-plane alignment of nematic liquid crystal (LC) molecules, 5CB, in a hybrid cell with alternate self-assembled films of low-molecular weight azobenzene dye and polyelectrolyte on gold electrodes using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurement method. The molecular self-assembly process was also investigated by the ATR method. Reflectivities due to excitations of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) were observed in the ATR properties of the LC cell. In-plane switching of the LC molecules adjacent to the aligning layer was evaluated from the ATR curves after irradiation of linearly polarized visible light to the LC cell. The sensitivity of the ATR method gives information on the alignment, tilt angle, and extent of LC reorientation in the bulk. Thus, the importance of using the molecular self-assembly processes of individual polyion-dye pairs for fabrication of new photo-aligning layers is emphasized.
Removal of natural pore during capsule hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and normal sintering were examined directly with the novel liquid immersion technique, which can reveal details of micro-structure and characterize flaw-forming defects of microns-size in lightly densified specimens. The results were supplemented by the pore size measurement with the mercury porosimetry, microstructural examination with SEM as well as microstructural examination of specimens after final densification. The behaviors in both pore size and shape changes were different in HIP and normal sintering. Removal of large pores of microns-size started from the beginning of densification in HIP. Whereas large pores grow with densification in normal sintering. Large pores changes their shape drastically in HIP, but hardly changes in normal sintering. The behavior of pore in the early stage of densification is closely related to the microstructure of densified specimen; without HIP, large defects of processing origin are present in near-fully dense specimen. These observations were discussed in terms of current sintering theory.
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