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Immigration and its consequences is one of the most contentious issues in the contemporary world, and historians are engaged in this debate by offering a longer-term perspective. In recent years, research on the United Kingdom's population has placed greater emphasis on population movement in shaping Britain's story, identifying waves of migrants from elsewhere alongside migration within Britain. One neglected aspect of this narrative, however, is the migration of Scots to England, particularly in the age of the regal and parliamentary union, when the changing political relationship between the two kingdoms had an impact on the scale, geographic spread, and opportunities and obstacles of that migration. While a minority of Scottish migrants were unwelcome, or chose to return home, the overwhelming weight of evidence is for those migrants who remained in England. The focus in this article is on that majority group for whom migration was a positive experience, thus raising questions about why these Scots were so successful and why they faced so little native opposition. That process of segmented assimilation offers an insight into the formation of Britain and the shifting ground of national identity associated with the emerging British state. The Scots, moreover, provide a model for “successful” migration, suggesting that a range of factors—principally, an educated, culturally malleable, and economically responsive migrant population, alongside an institutionally and attitudinally flexible host community—need to be in place in order to optimize the chances of migrant assimilation.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with childhood asthma and atopic disease. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has reported associations between reduced umbilical cord Fe status and childhood wheeze and eczema; however, follow-up was short and lung function was not measured. In the present study, the associations between maternal Fe status during pregnancy and childhood outcomes in the first 10 years of life were investigated in a subgroup of 157 mother–child pairs from a birth cohort with complete maternal, fetal ultrasound, blood and child follow-up data. Maternal Fe intake was assessed using FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation and Hb concentrations and serum Fe status (ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and TfR-F (transferrin receptor:ferritin) index) were measured at 11 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Maternal Fe intake, Hb concentrations and serum Fe status were found to be not associated with fetal or birth measurements. Unit increases in first-trimester maternal serum TfR concentrations (OR 1·44, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·99) and TfR-F index (OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·82) (i.e. decreasing Fe status) were found to be associated with an increased risk of wheeze, while unit increases in serum ferritin concentrations (i.e. increasing Fe status) were found to be associated with increases in standardised mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) (β 0·25, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·42) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (β 0·20, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·32) up to 10 years of age. Increasing maternal serum TfR-F index at delivery was found to be associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitisation (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·79). The results of the present study suggest that reduced maternal Fe status during pregnancy is adversely associated with childhood wheeze, lung function and atopic sensitisation, justifying further studies on maternal Fe status and childhood asthma and atopic disease.
Gerard J. Allan, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University,
Stephen M. Shuster, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University,
Scott Woolbright, The Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois,
Faith Walker, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University,
Nashelly Meneses, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University,
Arthur Keith, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University,
Joseph K. Bailey, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee,
Thomas G. Whitham, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University
Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs) are important mediators of community diversity and structure and associated ecosystem processes. Elucidating the genetic basis of ecologically important phenotypic traits is the first step toward understanding the complex interactions that occur among community members. Molecular markers routinely used in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses (e.g., amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), simple sequence repeats (SSRs)) have provided researchers with a toolbox for investigating the genetic basis of heritable traits. A goal of this research is to link genetically based traits to community interactions and ecosystem function. Ultimately, this insight can open a window onto the evolutionary dynamics that shape community structure and associated ecosystem processes (e.g., nutrient cycling). Such an approach is important as it bears on the continued development of the field of community genetics, which seeks to understand the genetic interactions that occur between species and their abiotic environment in complex communities (e.g., Whitham et al. 2003, 2006; Johnson and Agrawal 2005; LeRoy et al. 2006; Bangert et al. 2006a, b; Schweitzer et al. 2008; Crutsinger et al. 2009; Bailey et al. 2009).
Pragmatics is the study of human communication: the choices speakers make to express their intended meaning and the kinds of inferences that hearers draw from an utterance in the context of its use. This Handbook surveys pragmatics from different perspectives, presenting the main theories in pragmatic research, incorporating seminal research as well as cutting-edge solutions. It addresses questions of rational and empirical research methods, what counts as an adequate and successful pragmatic theory, and how to go about answering problems raised in pragmatic theory. In the fast-developing field of pragmatics, this Handbook fills the gap in the market for a one-stop resource to the wide scope of today's research and the intricacy of the many theoretical debates. It is an authoritative guide for graduate students and researchers with its focus on the areas and theories that will mark progress in pragmatic research in the future.