Boron nitride nanotubes, nanocones and nanocables were prepared and their atomic structures were identified by using a 300 kV field emission transmission electron microscope equipped with an electron energy loss spectrometer and energy dispersion X-ray detector. Multiwalled BN nanotubes and nanocones were synthesized by reacting C nanotube templates and boron oxide under nitrogen atmosphere at 1723-2023 K. Additions of metal oxide promoters, e.g. MoO3, CuO, and PbO, significantly improved BN-rich nanotube yield at the expense of B-C-N nanotubes. It was shown that BN nanotubes had preferential “zigzag” chirality and exhibited either hexagonal or rhombohedral stacking between shells. An efficient synthetic route for bulk quantities of BN tube production was also developed, where a B-N-O precursor was used during a CVD process. Nanocones of BN were mostly found to have 240° disclinations which ensure the presence of B-N bonds only. One case was observed of a cone constituted of 300° disclination implying that structures may contain line defects of non B-N bonds. The first synthesis of insulating BN nanocables was carried out, where BN nanotubes were entirely filled with Invar Fe-Ni nanorods. The filled nanotube diameters ranged between 30 to 300 nm, whereas the length of filling reached several microns.