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Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
We report the discovery of three new star clusters in the halo of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These clusters were found in the deep images taken with the MegaPrime at the CFHT covering a total field of 2 deg $\times$ 2 deg. The most remote cluster is found to be located as far as 79 arcmin away from the center of NGC 6822. This distance is several times larger than the size of the region in NGC 6822 where star clusters were previously found. Morphological structures of the clusters and color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stars in the clusters show that at least two of these clusters are proabably old globular clusters.
We demonstrated that the quality of siloxane spin-on glass (SOG) films, widely used as interlevel planarization dielectrics, is improved significantly by curing in argon plasma. The wet etch rate of SOG film decreases with increasing plasma treatment temperature or treatment time, and is much lower than that cured in a furnace. Long-time plasma treatment reduces the density of silanols (Si-OH) and methyl (−CH3) group, which act as adsorption sites of water. The results were compared with those obtained from the N2O (or H2 ) plasma treated SOG films. The modification of the SOG film by Ar plasma is related to the radiation damage and the reconstruction of the atomic structure during the plasma exposure. The role of metastable Ar (Ar*) appears to be very important to improve the SOG film; SOG film is more relaxed by the energy released from the conversion of Ar* to Ar.
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