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The parasite Fasciola hepatica is an important zoonotic parasite. The development of an animal model of F. hepatica's life cycle is critical for studying the biological characteristics of the parasite in snails and mammals. Eggs of F. hepatica of bovine origin were cultured, and metacercariae were obtained after infection of Galba pervia snails. The life cycle system of F. hepatica was initiated in 2 different animals by orally infecting rabbits, SD rats and Kunming mice with the metacercariae. The animals' survival after infection, parasite migration in the animals and pathological damage to the liver were observed. We discovered that rabbits died due to acute suppurative hepatitis 60–69 days after infection, and eggs were found in the feces on day 63 of infection. The liver of SD rats showed punctate lesions on day 3 of infection, and further changes occurred as the infection progressed. However, liver repair was observed at week 9. SD rats survived for more than a year after infection and continued the F. hepatica life cycle. The liver lesions in Kunming mice after infection were similar but more severe than those in SD rats. Death was observed on the 31st post-infection day. We discovered that while rabbits, SD rats and Kunming mice can all be used as animal models of F. hepatica, SD rats are more suitable experimental animals in terms of tolerance and pathological response.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato has complex defence mechanisms that protect it from the anti-parasitic immune response for long periods. Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (EgCF) is involved in the immune escape. Nevertheless, whether and how EgCF modulates the inflammatory response in macrophages remains poorly understood. Here, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that EgCF could markedly attenuate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-6 but increase the expression of IL-10 at mRNA and protein levels in mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanically, western blotting and immunofluorescence assay showed that EgCF abolished the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK1/2 signalling pathways by LPS stimulation in mouse macrophages. EgCF's anti-inflammatory role was at least partly contributed by promoting proteasomal degradation of the critical adaptor TRAF6. Moreover, the EgCF-promoted anti-inflammatory response and TRAF6 proteasomal degradation were conserved in human THP-1 macrophages. These findings collectively reveal a novel mechanism by which EgCF suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting TRAF6 and the downstream activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in both human and mouse macrophages, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the E. granulosus-induced immune evasion.
To understand the characteristics and influencing factors related to cluster infections in Jiangsu Province, China, we investigated case reports to explore transmission dynamics and influencing factors of scales of cluster infection. The effectiveness of interventions was assessed by changes in the time-dependent reproductive number (Rt). From 25th January to 29th February, Jiangsu Province reported a total of 134 clusters involving 617 cases. Household clusters accounted for 79.85% of the total. The time interval from onset to report of index cases was 8 days, which was longer than that of secondary cases (4 days) (χ2 = 22.763, P < 0.001) and had a relationship with the number of secondary cases (the correlation coefficient (r) = 0.193, P = 0.040). The average interval from onset to report was different between family cluster cases (4 days) and community cluster cases (7 days) (χ2 = 28.072, P < 0.001). The average time interval from onset to isolation of patients with secondary infection (5 days) was longer than that of patients without secondary infection (3 days) (F = 9.761, P = 0.002). Asymptomatic patients and non-familial clusters had impacts on the size of the clusters. The average reduction in the Rt value in family clusters (26.00%, 0.26 ± 0.22) was lower than that in other clusters (37.00%, 0.37 ± 0.26) (F = 4.400, P = 0.039). Early detection of asymptomatic patients and early reports of non-family clusters can effectively weaken cluster infections.
Drunken horse grass [Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng] is a perennial poisonous weed in western China. A comprehensive understanding of the ecological response of A. inebrians germination to environmental factors would facilitate the formulation of better management strategies for this weed. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the effects of various abiotic factors, including temperature, light, water, pH, and burial depth, on the germination and seedling emergence of A. inebrians. The seeds germinated at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 C and in alternating-temperature regimes of 15/5, 20/10, 25/15, 30/20, 35/25, and 40/30 C, and the germination percentages under constant and alternating temperatures ranged from 51% to 94% and 15% to 93%, respectively. Maximum germination occurred at a constant temperature of 25 C, and germination was prevented at 45/35 C. Light did not appear to affect germination. The germination percentage of seeds was more than 75% in the pH range of 5 to 10, with the highest germination percentage at pH 6. The seeds germinated at osmotic potentials of 0 MPa to −1.0 MPa, but decreasing osmotic potential inhibited germination, with no germination at −1.2MPa. After 21 d of low osmotic stress, the seeds that did not germinate after rehydration had not lost their vitality. The seedling emergence percentage was highest (90%) when seeds were buried at 1 cm, but declined with increasing burial depth, with no emergence at 9 cm. Deep tillage may be effective in limiting the germination and emergence of this species. The results of this study provide useful information on the conditions necessary for A. inebrians germination and provide a theoretical basis for science-based prediction, prevention, and control of this species.
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are proposed as potential structural materials for advanced nuclear systems, but little is known about the response of matrix chemistry in HEAs upon irradiation. Here, we reveal a substantial change of matrix chemical concentration as a function of irradiation damage (depth) in equiatomic NiCoFeCr HEA irradiated by 3 MeV Ni ions. After ion irradiation, the matrix contains more Fe/Cr in depth shallower than ~900–1000 nm but more Ni/Co from ~900–1000 nm to the end of the ion-damaged region due to the preferential diffusion of vacancies through Fe/Cr. Preferential diffusion also facilitates migration of vacancies from high radiation damage region to low radiation damage region, leading to no void formation below ~900–1000 nm and void formation around the end of the ion-damaged region at a fluence of 5 × 1016 cm−2 (~123 dpa, displacements per atom, peak dose under full cascade mode). As voids grow significantly at an increased fluence (8 × 1016 cm−2, 196 dpa), the matrix concentration does not change dramatically due to new voids formed below ~900–1000 nm.
Nitrogen is an important element for the growth of flue-cured tobacco and is closely related to its yield and quality. In order to pursue higher economic benefits, excessive fertilizer is generally applied in flue-cured tobacco production, which is unfavourable for the sustainable development of flue-cured tobacco production and for the environment. In 2016 and 2017, experiments using different nitrogen fertilizer application rates in flue-cure tobacco were conducted in Yunnan province, and the changes in agronomic, economic and chemical indices as well as in residual soil nitrogen were compared. Linear and quadratic models were used to compare the response of tobacco to nitrogen fertilizer. With increasing nitrogen fertilizer rate, the proportions of superior to medium tobacco and the average price of flue-cured tobacco leaves initially increased and then decreased, while fresh weight, dry weight and the proportion of inferior tobacco showed the opposite trend. Total sugar and reducing sugar contents decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates, while total nitrogen and nicotine contents increased. Sensory evaluation scores had the highest value when 90 kg N/ha and 120 kg N/ha were applied. Soil nitrate contents increased as nitrogen fertilizer rate increased. The quadratic model was suitable for the response of cultivar K326 to nitrogen and 90 kg N/ha could meet the needs of cultivar K326.
In January 2016, static GPS measurements were carried out in a 30 × 30 km2 area centered around Kunlun station at Dome Argus (Dome A), East Antarctica, to acquire high-precision 3-D geodetic coordinates at 49 sites. By comparing the coordinates with previous GPS measurements in 2008 and 2013 at the same sites, we constructed a detailed and long-term record of the ice-surface velocity field, 2008–2016, around Dome A. During this time span, the estimated ice-surface velocity ranges from 0.8 ± 0.3 to 28.7 ± 1.6 cm a−1, with a mean of 10.4 ± 0.3 cm a−1. From 2013 to 2016, the surface elevation of most Dome A areas exhibits a rising trend, and the maximum increase of snow surface elevation is 84.8 cm. The mean snow surface elevation change rate at Dome A is estimated to be 6.6 ± 0.7 cm a−1. The difference of 1.0 cm a−1 between the snow surface change rate derived from GPS and pole-height change rate from surface mass balance is suspected to be a result of a combination of firn densification and basal melt under Dome A.
Developing metallic materials with a good combination of strength and ductility has been an unending pursuit of materials scientists. The emergence of high/medium-entropy alloys (HEA/MEA) provided a novel strategy to achieve this. Here, we further strengthened a strong-and-ductile MEA using a traditional solid solution strengthening theory. The selection of solute elements was assisted by mechanical property and microstructure predictive models. Extensive microstructural characterizations and mechanical tests were performed to verify the models and to understand the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanisms of the designated CoCrNi–3W alloy. Our results show good experiment-model agreement. The incorporation of 3 at.% W into the ternary CoCrNi matrix increased its intrinsic strength by ∼20%. External strengthening through microstructural refinement led to a yield strength nearly double that of the parent alloy, CoCrNi. The increase in strength is obtained with still good ductility when tested down to 77 K. Nanoscale twin boundaries are observed in the post-fracture microstructure under 77 K. The combination of strength and ductility after W additions deviate from the traditional strength-ductility-trade-off contour.
Tropospheric delay is one of the main error sources in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP). Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD) accounts for 90% of the total delay. This research focuses on the improvements of ZHD from tropospheric models and real meteorological data on the PPP solution. Multi-GNSS PPP experiments are conducted using the datasets collected at Multi-GNSS Experiments (MGEX) network stations. The results show that the positioning accuracy of different GNSS PPP solutions using the meteorological data for ZHD correction can achieve an accuracy level of several millimetres. The average convergence time of a PPP solution for the BeiDou System (BDS), the Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite System of Russia (GLONASS), BDS+GPS, and BDS+GPS+GLONASS+Galileo are 55·89 min, 25·88 min, 33·30 min, 20·50 min and 15·71 min, respectively. The results also show that atmospheric parameters provided by real meteorological data have little effect on the horizontal components of positioning compared to the meteorological model, while in the vertical component, the positioning accuracy is improved by 90·6%, 33·0%, 22·2% and 19·8% compared with the standard atmospheric model, University of New Brunswick (UNB3m) model, Global Pressure and Temperature (GPT) model, and Global Pressure and Temperature-2 (GPT2) model and the convergence times are decreased 51·2%, 32·8%, 32·5%, and 32·3%, respectively.
The microbiota-gut-brain axis and membrane dysfunction in the brain has attracted increasing attention in the field of psychiatric research. However, the possible interactive role of gut microbiota and brain function in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia has not been studied yet.
To explore this, we collected fecal samples and performed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) scans in 81 high risk (HR) subjects, 19 ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects and 69 health controls (HC). Then we analyzed the differences in gut microbiota and choline concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).
Presences of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales were observed at increase levels in fecal samples of UHR subjects compared to the other two groups. The composition changes of gut microbiota indicate the increased production of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), which could activate microglia and then disrupt membrane metabolism. Furthermore, this was confirmed by an increase of choline levels, a brain imaging marker of membrane dysfunction, which is also significantly elevated in UHR subjects compared to the HR and HC groups.
Both gut microbiome and imaging studies of UHR subjects suggest the membrane dysfunction in the brain and hence might support the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Using repeat GPS measurements during 2005–16, we calculated and updated two-dimensional high-resolution decadal ice surface velocity estimates along the traverse route from Zhongshan Station to and around Dome Argus, East Antarctica. Along the 71 sites of the transect, the magnitudes of ice velocity increased from near 0 in Dome Argus to 1, 10 and ~100 m a−1 at the sites DT416, DT333 and LT980, respectively. The comparison between GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) derived results agree well when the magnitude of the ice surface velocities is faster than 5 m a−1, and disagree for slower flow velocities. A scale value 1.15 and 0.12 can be applied to InSAR derived results over this region with ice surface velocity larger and <5 m a−1, respectively. We attributed the cause of the discrepancy to the insensitivity of InSAR to the magnitude of low ice surface velocities, thus confirming the importance of GPS fieldwork-based ground truth high-resolution ice velocity estimates to constrain ice-sheet dynamics.
Mean curvature-based image registration model firstly proposed by Chumchob-Chen-Brito (2011) offered a better regularizer technique for both smooth and nonsmooth deformation fields. However, it is extremely challenging to solve efficiently this model and the existing methods are slow or become efficient only with strong assumptions on the smoothing parameter β. In this paper, we take a different solution approach. Firstly, we discretize the joint energy functional, following an idea of relaxed fixed point is implemented and combine with Gauss-Newton scheme with Armijo's Linear Search for solving the discretized mean curvature model and further to combine with a multilevel method to achieve fast convergence. Numerical experiments not only confirm that our proposed method is efficient and stable, but also it can give more satisfying registration results according to image quality.
In this paper, we proposed a simple approach to analyse the efficiency and propulsive characteristics of the high-altitude propeller in accordance to the Vortex Lattice Lifting line Method (VLM) theory, which is commonly used in preliminary design and parametric studies of propeller propulsion. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to obtain aerofoil aerodynamic data. The optimal pitch angle and propeller blade chord length (along the radial direction) can be calculated using the information from the database. The propeller wake model sees helical slipstreams applied to both lightly and moderately loaded propellers. The proposed method is capable of identifying the optimal efficiency through varying the number of propeller blades, radius and the rotational speed. The relationship between the optimal efficiency and design parameters is then established. This method was verified using CFD calculations.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
We studied the effects of four non-nutrient environmental factors (temperature, salinity, irradiance and pH) on the growth inhibition of the macroalgae Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) upon the microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo (Rhaphidophyta). Experiments were conducted in single-factor incubation and various two-factor combination experiments in which temperature (10, 15, 25 and 30°C), salinity (10, 20, 30 and 40 g kg−1 water), irradiance (20, 100, 200 and 400 μmol m−2 s−1), and pH (5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) were varied systematically. The growth rates of U. pertusa and H. akashiwo and the rate of microalgal growth inhibition were altered significantly by changing some of the non-nutrient factors in both the single-factor and the two-factor experiments. The optimal growth conditions for U. pertusa were 20–25°C, salinity of 30 g kg−1, irradiance level of 200–400 μmol m−2 s−1, and pH 8.5–10; optimal conditions for H. akashiwo growth were 25°C, 30 g kg−1, 100 μmol m−2 s−1 and pH 8.5, respectively. The growth inhibitory influence of U. pertusa on H. akashiwo was strongest at 25°C with low salinity (10 g kg−1), high irradiance (400 μmol m−2 s−1) and high alkalinity (pH = 10). The results of this study may be helpful in the development of methods for using green macroalgae to control the proliferation of microalgae in harmful algal blooms (HABs). In particular, these findings provide guidance regarding optimum levels of non-nutrient environmental factors in confined areas, such as aquaculture factories.