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Low gestational weight gain (GWG) is a known risk factor of low birthweight. Although studies have previously examined the associations between GWG and birthweight, the period-specific effects of low GWG in each trimester remain unclear. This study aimed to quantify the trimester-specific direct effects of low GWG in Japanese women on birthweight. Using perinatal data from a cohort study, we analyzed pregnant women delivered at an obstetrics/gynecology hospital between October 2006 and May 2010. We focused on women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) below 25 kg/m2. The exposure was low GWG. The gestation period was subdivided into trimesters, and the direct effects of low trimester-specific GWG on birthweight were estimated using marginal structural models. These models were guided by a direct acyclic graph that incorporated potential confounders, including pre-pregnancy BMI, age, smoking during pregnancy, height, and parity. We analyzed 563 women and their families. The mean cumulative GWG by the end of the first, second, and third trimesters was 0.9, 6.2, and 10.7 kg, respectively. Approximately 14.0% of the women gained total weight below the range recommended by Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The direct effects of low GWG on birthweight were 65.9 g (95% confidence interval: 11.4, 120.5), −195.4 g (−263.4, −127.4), and −188.8 g (−292.0, −85.5) for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Insufficient weight gain in the second and third trimesters had a negative impact on birthweight after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and other covariates.
The bamboo mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a mosquito species ubiquitous across forested landscapes in Japan. During 2014 we sampled adult mosquitoes from May to November using a sweep net in Nagasaki, Japan. We recorded and managed our field data using Open Data Kit, which eased the overall process of data management before performing their statistical analysis. Here, we analyse the resulting biweekly time series of the bamboo mosquito abundance using time-series statistical techniques. Specifically, we test for density dependence in the population dynamics fitting the Ricker model. Parameter estimates for the Ricker model suggest that the bamboo mosquito is under density dependence regulation and that its population dynamics is stable. Our data also suggest the bamboo mosquito increased its abundance when temperature was more variable at our study site. Further work is warranted to better understand the linkage between the observed density dependence in the adults and the larvae of this mosquito species.
A study was conducted to evaluate the ability of mammalian oocytes to develop to the pronuclear stage and beyond if injected with freeze-dried sperm nuclei. The rate of development of hamster eggs to the pronuclear stage after microinjection of freeze-dried hamster sperm nuclei was 90%. The pronuclear formation rate of hamster eggs injected with freeze-dried human sperm nuclei was 85%. On the other hand, the rates for eggs injected with untreated sperm nuclei were 84% and 89% respectively. The survival rate of rabbit eggs microinjected with freeze-dried rabbit sperm nuclei was 64%, the fertilisation rate 56% and the cleavage rate 38%. The survival, fertilisation and cleavage rates of eggs injected with non-freeze-dried sperm nuclei were 78%, 45% and 34%, respectively. There was no difference between eggs injected with freeze-dried sperm nuclei and those injected with sperm nuclei that had not been freeze-dried. Of the viable rabbit eggs injected with freeze-dried rabbit sperm nuclei, 6% developed to the 6- to 8-cell stage 62 h after injection.
The molecular composite composed of polyethylene (PE) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and its surface modification for biocompatible surface demonstrated the creation of novel polymer biomaterials. In this study, this modification process was applied to the PE narrow tube (inside diameter: 300μm, outside diameter: 600μm, length: 5m). It was confirmed that PVAc was uniformly generated in PE tube by infrared imaging measurement of cross-section. After the acetyl group on the surface was hydrolyzed, phospholipid polymer was immobilized to the hydroxyl group on the surface of the tube. The phospholipid polymer immobilized surface showed a drastic reduction in protein adsorption. The surface of the minute and slender tube can be effectively modified using the feature of carbon dioxide whose surface tension is near zero. The modification technology by scCO2 is a promising for creation of variously-shaped new biomaterials.
Haloaleurodiscus gen. nov. (Homobasidiomycetes) is described from Japanese mangrove forests with one species H. mangrovei sp. nov. The genus is morphologically characterized by having resupinate basidioma, nodose-septate hyphae, sulphoaldehyde-positive gloeocystidia, dendrohyphidia and amyloid basidiospores with minute warts. These morphological features are similar to those of Aleurodiscuss. lat., but H. mangrovei differs from the Aleurodiscus primarily in occurring in white pocket-rot and is not closely related based on ribosomal DNA sequence analyses. Molecular data suggest that this species is phylogenetically placed in the root of the ‘Peniophorales’ clade. In addition, ecological and physiological features of the species are provided.
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