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To assess dietary behaviours and related lifestyles according to the presence or absence of skipping breakfast.
We analysed the cross-sectional data from a baseline survey of a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan conducted in 2011–2016. Participants provided information on dietary behaviours and lifestyles through a self-administered questionnaire. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating breakfast at least once a week and was classified according to the frequency of skipping breakfast as 1–2, 3–4 or ≥5 times/week.
Sixteen municipalities in seven prefectural areas across Japan under the Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study for the Next Generation.
112 785 residents (51 952 males and 60 833 females) aged 40–74 years.
After adjustment for age, socio-demographic status, drinking status and smoking status, individuals who skipped breakfast at least once a week, compared with those who ate breakfast every day, were more likely to have adverse dietary behaviours such as frequent eating out (multivariable OR = 2·08, 95 % CI (1·96, 2·21) in males and 2·15, 95 % CI (1·99, 2·33) in females), frequent eating instant foods (1·89, 95 % CI (1·77, 2·01) in males and 1·72, 95 % CI (1·56, 1·89) in females). They had late bedtime (1·85, 95 % CI (1·75, 1·95) in males and 1·98, 95 % CI (1·86, 2·11) in females) and living alone (2·37, 95 % CI (2·17, 2·58) in males and 2·02, 95 % CI (1·83, 2·21) in females), using the logistic regression model.
Both adult males and females who skipped breakfast were likely to eat out, to have a dietary habit of eating instant foods and have lifestyles such as late bedtime and living alone than those who ate breakfast.
The concentrations of booster compounds were surveyed in the port of Osaka, Japan. The concentrations of Sea-Nine 211, Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in water samples from the port of Osaka were in the ranges <0·30–0·55 ng l−1, 13–350 ng l−1, 1·3–77 ng l−1, respectively. Pyrithiones were not detected in water samples. The levels of Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in the port of Osaka were high in the mooring area for small and medium-hull vessels with poor flushing.
Susceptibility of bacterial populations in estuarine water to antifouling biocides was studied. Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Copper pyrithione dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were added to estuarine water and number of colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria in estuarine water was counted using R2A agar plate. The CFU was not decreased at the concentration less than 1·0 mg/l of Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Copper pyrithione. However, CFU was decreased at 0·1 mg/l of Sea-Nine 211. Degradation of Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Copper pyrithione by bacteria in estuarine water was studied using a die-away method. At an initial concentrations of 0·1 mg/l, observed half-lives of Sea-Nine 211 and Copper pyrithione were 10 and 20 days, respectively. In contrast, Diuron and Irgarol 1051 were degraded scarcely during 60 days of culture.
Photodegradation of these booster biocides by sunlight and UV light were studied. Under UV, all biocides were below detection limit after one day of irradiation. Under sunlight, Copper pyrithiones were also below detection limits after one day. Drastic decrease of Sea-Nine 211 concentration was observed after one day. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 scarcely decreased during 17 days of sunlight irradiation.
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