GaN nanocolumns including a GaN/AlN superlattice (SL) region were grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity of the GaN/AlN SL nanocolumns was 300∼500 times stronger than that of conventional GaN continuous films with a dislocation density of 3∼5×109 cm−2 and thickness of 3.75 μm grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The peak wavelengths of the GaN (10.2 ML)/AlN (15.2 ML) SL and GaN (7.7 ML)/AlN (12.4 ML) SL were 420 and 380 nm, respectively. The theoretically calculated transition wavelength agreed well with experimental values, suggesting that GaN/AlN SL nanocolumns involve a large built-in electrostatic field of about 5.8 MV/cm. The effect of the surface morphology of nanocolumns on the PL intensity was studied using GaN/AlN SL nanocolumns with different surface morphologies but with the same nanocolumn structure. Integrated PL intensity was increased by a factor of 2.2 upon changing the surface morphology from continuous to columnar.