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The objective of this study was to determine antibiotic appropriateness based on Loeb minimum criteria (LMC) in patients with and without altered mental status (AMS).
Retrospective, quasi-experimental study assessing pooled data from 3 periods pertaining to the implementation of a UTI management guideline.
Academic medical center in Lexington, Kentucky.
Adult patients aged ≥18 years with a collected urinalysis receiving antimicrobial therapy for a UTI indication.
Appropriateness of UTI management was assessed in patients prior to an institutional UTI guideline, after guideline introduction and education, and after implementation of a prospective audit-and-feedback stewardship intervention from September to November 2017–2019. Patient data were pooled and compared between patients noted to have AMS versus those with classic UTI symptoms. Loeb minimum criteria were used to determine whether UTI diagnosis and treatment was warranted.
In total, 600 patients were included in the study. AMS was one of the most common indications for testing across the 3 periods (19%–30.5%). Among those with AMS, 25 patients (16.7%) met LMC, significantly less than the 151 points (33.6%) without AMS (P < .001).
Patients with AMS are prescribed antibiotic therapy without symptoms indicative of UTI at a higher rate than those without AMS, according to LMC. Further antimicrobial stewardship efforts should focus on prescriber education and development of clearly defined criteria for patients with and without AMS.
To compare 2 methods of communicating polymerase chain reaction (PCR) blood-culture results: active approach utilizing on-call personnel versus passive approach utilizing notifications in the electronic health record (EHR).
Retrospective observational study.
A tertiary-care academic medical center.
Adult patients hospitalized with ≥1 positive blood culture containing a gram-positive organism identified by PCR between October 2014 and January 2018.
The standard protocol for reporting PCR results at baseline included a laboratory technician calling the patient’s nurse, who would report the critical result to the medical provider. The active intervention group consisted of an on-call pager system utilizing trained pharmacy residents, whereas the passive intervention group combined standard protocol with real-time in-basket notifications to pharmacists in the EHR.
Of 209 patients, 105, 61, and 43 patients were in the control, active, and passive groups, respectively. Median time to optimal therapy was shorter in the active group compared to the passive group and control (23.4 hours vs 42.2 hours vs 45.9 hours, respectively; P = .028). De-escalation occurred 12 hours sooner in the active group. In the contaminant group, empiric antibiotics were discontinued faster in the active group (0 hours) than in the control group and the passive group (17.7 vs 7.2 hours; P = .007). Time to active therapy and days of therapy were similar.
A passive, electronic method of reporting PCR results to pharmacists was not as effective in optimizing stewardship metrics as an active, real-time method utilizing pharmacy residents. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal method of communicating time-sensitive information.
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