To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Initial assessments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preparedness revealed resource shortages and variations in infection prevention policies across US hospitals. Our follow-up survey revealed improvement in resource availability, increase in testing capacity, and uniformity in infection prevention policies. Most importantly, the survey highlighted an increase in staffing shortages and use of travel nursing.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
We performed a cross-sectional survey of infection preventionists in 60 US community hospitals between April 22 and May 8, 2020. Several differences in hospital preparedness for SARS-CoV-2 emerged with respect to personal protective equipment conservation strategies, protocols related to testing, universal masking, and restarting elective procedures.
Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely considered together within a single study. Aims: The current study explored specific and shared associations between anxiety sensitivity subscales and rumination and anxiety and depressive symptoms in unselected children. Method: Multiple regression analyses explored to what extent specific self-reported anxiety sensitivity subscales (physical, social and mental concerns) and rumination predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms in 147 unselected children, aged 7–11 years. Results: Physical and social concern subscales of anxiety sensitivity were specifically associated with anxiety, whilst rumination was specifically associated with depressive symptoms. The mental concerns subscale of anxiety sensitivity was independently associated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. These associations were only partially mediated by rumination. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression in young people are characterized by specific and shared cognitions. Evidence for shared and specific associations between the cognitive vulnerabilities of anxiety sensitivity and rumination, and anxiety and depression highlight the utility of transdiagnostic research and confirm that cognitive therapies may benefit from targeting cognitive concerns relating specifically to the patient's presenting symptoms.
This chapter outlines the events involved in the adaptive and innate immune responses to a transplant and the subsequent mechanisms of rejection, concluding with current clinical and experimental strategies to protect transplants from immune-mediated damage. The recognition of foreign antigens by naive host (recipient) T cells is a principal step in the rejection process. Allorecognition in the presence of costimulation results in the activation and expansion of T-cells that recognize the mismatched donor alloantigens. Immunosuppressive therapy can be credited with the vast improvements in transplant survival. The chapter explores the underlying mechanisms of action in relation to the immunobiology. Newer monoclonal antibodies include alemtuzumab, rituximab, basiliximab, and daclizumab, which target specific T-cell surface proteins. The advances in immunosuppression have improved short- and medium-term graft survival rates and reduced the rates of acute rejection, but this has not been followed by a comparable reduction in long-term graft dysfunction rates.
During the past 30 years, organ transplantation has developed from a highly experimental procedure into an important part of routine clinical practice. This is reflected by the fact that graft survival times, which were once considered in terms of days or weeks, are now measured in terms of years or decades, with enormous corresponding benefits for the patient. Much of this improvement is due to the development of sophisticated immunosuppressive drugs that inhibit the rejection response mediated by the immune system of the recipient. However, almost without exception, all of the grafts that are transplanted from one genetically disparate individual to another are eventually rejected. The Holy Grail in transplantation is the development of protocols that lead to transplantation tolerance and provide stable graft function without long-term drug therapy. In this article, we have discussed the need for alternatives to current immunosuppression and reviewed the results of animal models, which suggest that long-term stable tolerance is an achievable goal.
Gene therapy continues to offer much hope for the future treatment of a variety of clinical conditions. The development of tailored, novel gene transfer vectors will improve the efficiency and stability of therapeutic gene expression in the many settings of gene therapy. In the context of tissue and organ transplantation, gene therapy is being harnessed to prevent the acute and chronic rejection of transplanted tissues by introducing either new genes that are important in preventing rejection (e.g. co-stimulatory blocking molecules or immunosuppressive cytokines) or antisense nucleic acids to block the production of rejection-associated molecules such as adhesion molecules. The delivery of genes by gene therapy vectors that encode foreign donor antigens (alloantigens) might also be an effective means of inducing donor-specific unresponsiveness (immunological tolerance) in the recipient, perhaps eliminating the requirement for potentially harmful whole-body immunosuppression.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.