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Clark and Fischer propose that people interpret social robots not as social agents, but as interactive depictions. Drawing on research focusing on how children selectively learn from social others, we argue that children do not view social robots as interactive toys but instead treat them as social learning partners and critical sources of information.
Jagiello and colleagues offer a bifocal stance theory of cultural evolution for understanding how individuals flexibly choose between instrumental and ritual stances in social learning. We argue that the role of culture, developmental age-related differences, and the intersectionality of these and other individual's identities need to be more fully considered in this theoretical framework.
Osiurak and Reynaud offer a unified cognitive approach to cumulative technological culture, arguing that it begins with non-social cognitive skills that allow humans to learn and develop new technical information. Drawing on research focusing on how children acquire knowledge through interactions others, we argue that social learning is essential for humans to acquire technical information.
In this introductory chapter, we outline three broad questions of interest to researchers and educators, each of which provides a clear thread throughout the volume. First, where do questions come from, and how do children engage in questioning across development? Second, to what extent is questioning universal, and in what ways is it socialized? Third, what role does question-asking play in learning more broadly, in both formal and informal environments?
In this volume, we have brought together leading researchers in psychology and education with the goal of generating an overview of key issues pertaining to the role of questioning in development, to assess where the field stands in terms of investigating these issues, and to chart a path forward for this research in the coming years. In our introduction, we outlined three broad questions of interest to researchers and educators: (1) Where do questions come from, and how do children engage in questioning across development? (2) To what extent is questioning universal, and in what ways is it socialized? (3) What role does question-asking play in learning more broadly, in both formal and informal environments? In this concluding chapter we revisit these three key questions, weaving together the contributors’ insights before laying out a roadmap to highlight promising avenues of focus for future researchers in the field.
Questioning others is one of the most powerful methods that children use to learn about the world. How does questioning develop? How is it socialized? And how can questioning be leveraged to support learning and education? In this volume, some of the world's leading experts are brought together to explore critical issues in the development of questioning. By collecting interdisciplinary and international perspectives from psychology and education, The Questioning Child presents research from a variety of distinct methodological and theoretical backgrounds. It synthesizes current knowledge on the role of question-asking in cognitive development and charts a path forward for researchers and educators to understand the pivotal function that questioning plays in child development and education.
We argue that adopting a sociocultural lens to the origins of intergroup bias is important for understanding the nature of attacking and defending behavior at a group level. We specifically propose that the potential divergence in the development of in-group affiliation and out-group derogation supports De Dreu and Gross's framework but does indicate that more emphasis on early sociocultural input is required.
We propose that early in ontogeny, children's core cognitive abilities are shaped by culturally dependent “software updates.” The role of sociocultural inputs in the development of children's learning is largely missing from Lake et al.'s discussion of the development of human-like artificial intelligence, but its inclusion would help move research even closer to machines that can learn and think like humans.
Norenzayan et al. argue that prosocial religion develops through cultural evolution. Surprisingly, they give little attention to developmental accounts of prosocial religious beliefs. A consideration of the developmental literature supports some, but not all, of the authors’ conclusions.
Kline argues for an expanded taxonomy of teaching focusing on the adaptive behaviors needed to solve learning problems. Absent from her analysis is an explicit definition of learning, or a discussion of the iterative nature of the relationship between teaching and learning. Including the learner in the discussion may help to distinguish among the adaptive values of different teaching behaviors.
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