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The ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) tool measures a set of therapeutic competencies required for the effective psychological intervention, including delivery by non-specialists. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of the ENACT for the South African (SA) context and presents the tool's initial psychometric properties.
We employed a four-step process: (1) Item generation: 204 therapeutic factors were generated by SA psychologists and drawn from the original ENACT as potential items; (2) Item relevance: SA therapists identified 96 items that were thematically coded according to their relationship to one another and were assigned to six domains; (3) Item utility: The ENACT-SA scale was piloted by rating recordings of psychological therapy sessions and stakeholder input; and (4) Psychometric properties: Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the final 12-item ENACT-SA were explored using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC) for both clinical psychologists and registered counsellors.
Although the original ENACT provided a framework for developing a tool for use in SA, several modifications were made to improve the applicability of the tool for the SA context, and optimise its adaptability other contexts. The adapted 12-item tool's internal consistency was good, while the inter-rater reliability was acceptable for both clinical psychologists and registered counsellors.
The ENACT-SA is a reliable tool to assess common factors in psychological treatments. It is recommended that the tool be used in conjunction with assessment protocols and treatment-specific competency measures to fully assess implementation fidelity and potential mechanisms of therapeutic change.
Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are a leading, but neglected, cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The treatment gap for MNS is vast with only 10% of people with MNS disorders in low-income countries accessing evidence-based treatments. Reasons for this include low awareness of the burden of MNS disorders and limited evidence to support development, adaptation and implementation of effective and feasible treatments. The overall goal of the African Mental Health Research Initiative (AMARI) is to build an African-led network of MNS researchers in Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe, who are equipped to lead high quality mental health research programs that meet the needs of their countries, and to establish a sustainable career pipeline for these researchers with an emphasis on integrating MNS research into existing programs such as HIV/AIDS. This paper describes the process leading to the development of AMARI's objectives through a theory of change workshop, successes and challenges that have been faced by the consortium in the last 4 years, and the future role that AMARI could play in further building MNS research capacity by brining on board more institutions from low- and middle-income countries with an emphasis on developing an evidence-based training curriculum and a research-driven care service.
This chapter takes an anthropological approach to the study of global mental health among women. It explores the cultural, economic, and political determinants of women's mental health in an effort to identify directions for future research on pathways to improve women's well-being, emphasizing the role of empowerment. The chapter elaborates upon the World Health Organization (WHO) analyses, utilizing the 2009 updates on the disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) and global burden of disease to consider comparisons between women and men in the context of selected countries. It presents global trends as well as a comparison across the world's populous countries and diverse predominantly Muslim countries of high, medium, and low income, three of which have been highly affected by war. Future research on global mental health of women should be grounded in the lived experience of mental illness in an inexorably entangled nexus of relations of culture, power, gender, and meaning.
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