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To examine trends in the intake of key food groups among Iranian adults between 2005 and 2016, overall, and according to sociodemographic characteristics.
Repeat cross-sectional data from the Iran-STEPwise approach to risk factor surveillance (Iran-WHO STEPS) 2005–2016 were analysed. Regression analyses were used to evaluate trends in the frequency of fruits, vegetables and fish intake and type of oil used over time. Interactions by sex, age and area of residence were examined.
225 221 Iranian adults.
The frequency of vegetables (β: −0·03; 95 % CI (−0·06, −0·00); P-trend = 0·030) and fish (β: −0·09; 95 % CI (−0·10, −0·08); P-trend < 0·001) intake and use of solid fat (OR: 0·70; 95 % CI (0·70, 0·72); P-trend < 0·001) declined, whilst the frequency of fruit intake (β-Coeff: 0·03, 95 % CI (0·01, 0·05); P-trend = 0·014) and liquid oil use (OR: 1·40; 95 % CI (1·3, 1·4); P-trend<0·001) rose. Rising trends in fruit intake were larger in mid-aged (40–60 years) and older (>60 years) adults (P-interaction < 0·001), whilst declines in vegetable (P-interaction < 0·001) and fish intake (P-interaction = 0·001) were larger in older adults. The declining use of solid fat was strongest in middle-aged and older adults (P-interaction = 0·035), while the increasing use of liquid oil was strongest in rural areas (P-interaction = 0·011).
During the nutrition transition, liquid oil use and the frequency of fruit intake rose, while the frequency of vegetables and fish intake declined. Nonetheless, the fatty acid composition and cooking methods are important considerations. The changes observed are concerning from a public health perspective and demonstrate the need for interventions and possible targets for tailored strategies.
This study examined differences in food groups consumed at eating occasions by the level of adherence to dietary guidelines in Australian adults (≤19 years) and whether consumption differed with respect to age, sex and education levels. Secondary analysis of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n 9054) was performed, using one 24-h dietary recall with self-reported eating occasions. Dietary Guideline Index scores were used to assess adherence to the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Mean differences (95 % CI) in servings of the five food groups and discretionary foods at eating occasions were estimated for adults with higher and lower diet quality, stratified by sex, age group and education. Using survey-based t-tests, differences of at least half a serving with P values < 0·05 were considered meaningful. Compared with adults with lower diet quality, women and men aged 19–50 years with higher diet quality consumed more serves of vegetables at dinner (mean difference (95 % CI), women; 1·0; 95 % CI (0·7, 1·2); men: 0·9; 95 % CI (0·6, 1·3)) and fewer serves of discretionary foods at snacks (women: −0·7; 95 % CI (−0·9, −0·5); men: −1·0; 95 % CI (−1·4, −0·7). Other food groups, such as grains, dairy products and alternatives, meats and alternatives, were not significantly different between adults with lower and higher diet quality, across any eating occasions and age groups. Discretionary food intake at lunch, dinner and snacks was consistently greater among adults with lower diet quality, regardless of education level. Our findings identify dinner and snacks as opportunities to increase vegetable intake and reduce discretionary food intake, respectively.
Nutrition scientists are currently facing a substantial challenge: to feed the world population sustainably and ethically while supporting the health of all individuals, animals and the environment. The Nutrition Society of Australia's 2022 Annual Scientific meeting theme ‘Sustainable nutrition for a healthy life’ was a timely conference focusing on the environmental impact of global, national and local food systems, how nutrition science can promote sustainable eating practices while respecting cultural and culinary diversity and how to ensure optimal nutrition throughout life to prevent and manage chronic diseases. Comprehensive, diverse, collaborative and forward-thinking research was presented in a 3 d programme of keynote presentations, oral and poster sessions, breakfast and lunch symposiums, ending with a panel discussion to answer the question of how we can best achieve a nutritious food supply that supports human and planetary health. We concluded that this complex issue necessitates coordinated efforts and multi-faceted responses at local, national and global levels. Collaboration among consumers, scientists, industry and government using a systems approach is vital for finding solutions to this challenge.
Indigenous peoples and ethnic minority groups often experience poor diet quality and poor health outcomes. Such inequities may be partially due to nutrition interventions not meeting the unique cultural and linguistic needs of these population groups, which could be achieved using co-creation and/or personalised approaches. Cultural adaptation or tailoring of nutrition interventions has shown promise in improving some aspects of dietary intake, but this requires careful consideration to ensure it does not inadvertently exacerbate dietary inequities. The aim of this narrative review was to examine examples of cultural adaptations and/or tailoring of public health nutrition interventions that improved the dietary intake and to consider implications for the optimal design and implementation of personalised and precision nutrition interventions. This review identified six examples of cultural adaptation and/or tailoring of public health nutrition intervention in Indigenous peoples and ethnic minority groups across Australia, Canada and the US. All studies used deep socio-cultural adaptations, such as the use of Indigenous storytelling, and many included surface-level adaptations, such as the use of culturally appropriate imagery in intervention materials. However, it was not possible to attribute any improvements in dietary intake to cultural adaptation and/or tailoring per se, and the minimal reporting on the nature of adaptations limited our ability to determine whether the interventions used true co-creation to design content or were adapted from existing interventions. Findings from this review outline opportunities for personalised nutrition interventions to use co-creation practices to design, deliver and implement interventions in collaboration with Indigenous and ethnic minority groups.
Changes between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) over 12 years were examined in men and women, in 2844 adults (46 % males; mean age 47·3 (sd 9·7) years) from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study with data at baseline, 5 and 12 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a seventy-four-item FFQ. Diet quality was estimated with the Dietary Guideline Index, Mediterranean-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Intervention for Neurological Delay Index (MIND) and Dietary Inflammatory Index. HR-QoL in terms of global, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) was assessed with the Short-Form Health Survey-36. Fixed effects regression models adjusted for confounders were performed. Mean MCS increased from baseline (49·0, sd 9·3) to year 12 (50·7, sd 9·1), whereas mean PCS decreased from baseline (51·7, sd 7·4) to year 12 (49·5, sd 8·6). For the total sample, an improvement in MIND was associated with an improvement in global QoL (β = 0·28, 95 % CI (0·007, 0·55)). In men, an improvement in MIND was associated with an improvement in global QoL (β = 0·28, 95 % CI (0·0004, 0·55)). In women, improvement in MIND was associated with improvements in global QoL (β = 0·62 95 % CI (0·38, 0·85)), MCS (β = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·29, 1·22)) and PCS (β = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·29, 1·22)). Positive changes in diet quality were associated with broad improvements in HR-QoL, and most benefits were observed in women when compared to men. These findings support the need for strategies to assist the population in consuming healthy dietary patterns to lead to improvements in HR-QoL.
To examine how socio-demographic characteristics and diet quality vary with consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) in a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of Australian adults.
Using a 24-h recall, this cross-sectional analysis of dietary and socio-demographic data classified food items using the NOVA system, estimated the percentage of total energy contributed by UPFs and assessed diet quality using the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI–2013 total and components). Linear regression models examined associations between socio-demographic characteristics and diet quality with percentage of energy from UPF.
Australian Health Survey 2011–2013.
Australian adults aged ≥ 19 years (n 8209).
Consumption of UPF was higher among younger adults (aged 19–30 years), adults born in Australia, those experiencing greatest area-level disadvantage, lower levels of education and the second lowest household income quintile. No significant association was found for sex or rurality. A higher percentage of energy from UPF was inversely associated with diet quality and with lower DGI scores related to the variety of nutritious foods, fruits, vegetables, total cereals, meat and poultry, fish, eggs, nuts and seeds, legumes/beans, water and limits on discretionary foods, saturated fat and added sugar.
This research adds to the evidence on dietary inequalities across Australia and how UPF are detrimental to diet quality. The findings can be used to inform interventions to reduce UPF consumption and improve diet quality.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
Evidence linking dietary patterns (DP) and obesity and hypertension prevalence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify DP derived from energy density, fibre and sugar intakes, as well as Na, K, fibre, SFA and PUFA, and investigate associations with obesity and hypertension. Adults (n 4908) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011–2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls estimated food and nutrient intakes. Reduced rank regression derived DP with dietary energy density (DED), fibre density and total sugar intake as response variables for obesity and Na:K, SFA:PUFA and fibre density as variables for hypertension. Poisson regression investigated relationships between DP and prevalence ratios (PR) of overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and hypertension (blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg). Obesity-DP1 was positively correlated with fibre density and sugars and inversely with DED. Obesity-DP2 was positively correlated with sugars and inversely with fibre density. Individuals in the highest tertile of Obesity-DP1 and Obesity-DP2, compared with the lowest, had lower (PR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95) and higher (PR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18) prevalence of obesity, respectively. Na:K and SFA:PUFA were positively correlated with Hypertension-DP1 and inversely correlated with Hypertension-DP2, respectively. There was a trend towards higher hypertension prevalence in the highest tertile of Hypertension-DP1 compared with the lowest (PR 1·18; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·41). Hypertension-DP2 was not associated with hypertension. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with low-DED, high-fibre and high-sugar (natural sugars) diets and positively associated with low-fibre and high-sugar (added sugars) diets. Hypertension prevalence was higher on low-fibre and high-Na and SFA diets.
Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study.
The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback).
Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece.
Adults aged 18–79 years (n 1607).
A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003).
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AAv. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson’s correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
With the substantial economic and social burden of CVD, the need to modify diet and lifestyle factors to reduce risk has become increasingly important. Milk and dairy products, being one of the main contributors to SFA intake in the UK, are a potential target for dietary SFA reduction. Supplementation of the dairy cow's diet with a source of MUFA or PUFA may have beneficial effects on consumers' CVD risk by partially replacing milk SFA, thus reducing entry of SFA into the food chain. A total of nine chronic human intervention studies have used dairy products, modified through bovine feeding, to establish their effect on CVD risk markers. Of these studies, the majority utilised modified butter as their primary test product and used changes in blood cholesterol concentrations as their main risk marker. Of the eight studies that measured blood cholesterol, four reported a significant reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) following chronic consumption of modified milk and dairy products. Data from one study suggested that a significant reduction in LDL-C could be achieved in both the healthy and hypercholesterolaemic population. Thus, evidence from these studies suggests that consumption of milk and dairy products with modified fatty acid composition, compared with milk and dairy products of typical milk fat composition, may be beneficial to CVD risk in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic individuals. However, current evidence is insufficient and further work is needed to investigate the complex role of milk and cheese in CVD risk and explore the use of novel markers of CVD risk.
Microstructures of two-phase Ti–Cr alloys (Ti-rich bcc + TiCr2 and Cr-rich bcc + TiCr2) are analyzed. A variety of TiCr2 precipitate morphologies is encountered with different nominal alloy compositions and annealing temperatures. Lattice constants and crystal structures are determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Orientation relationships between the beta bcc solid solution and C15 TiCr2 Laves phase are understood in terms of geometrical packing, and are consistent with a Laves phase growth mechanism involving twinning.
Systematic studies of alloys based on TiCr2 have been performed in order to improve the toughness of Laves phase intermetallics. The extent to which alloy compositions and annealing treatments influence the toughness was quantified by Vickers indentation. The single-phase Laves behavior was first established by studying stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiCr2. Next, alloying effects were investigated with ternary Laves phases based on TiCr2. Different microstructures of two-phase alloys consisting of (Ti,Cr)-bcc+TiCr2 were also examined. Various toughening theories based on vacancies, site-substitutions, crystal structure (C14, C36, or C15) stabilization, and the presence of a second phase were evaluated. The most effective factors improving the toughness of TiCr2 were determined, and toughening mechanisms are suggested.
Ti-Cr alloys near the TiCr2 composition have been studied to determine the single-phase Laves field and the associated defects accompanying off-stoichiometry. A combination of metallography, x-ray diffraction, lattice parameter measurements, density measurements and electron microprobe analysis have been used to establish a narrow single-phase region extending towards Ti-rich compositions. All three Laves crystal structures (C14, C36 and C15) were found to exist at different temperatures. Hardness and fracture toughness values determined by Vickers microindentation were studied as a function of alloy composition. Effects of adding Fe, Nb, Mo, and V to TiCr2 on lattice parameter, crystal structure, hardness and fracture toughness are reported.
The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr2 in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr2. The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability.
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