The study of twins and their families provides a highly useful tool for disentangling the genetic and environmental origins of traits. The Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins (CaStANET) has followed children and adolescents over time into early adulthood, assessing a wide range of aspects of behavior and psychopathology using self-, parent and teacher reports. Four main waves of data collection have taken place to date, which have provided a wealth of information on the contributions of genetic and environmental risk factors to the psychological health of young people. This article first describes the CaStANET register and subsequently presents some of the findings that have emerged from this resource, with a focus on depression and anxiety, chronic fatigue, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct problems and prosocial behavior. We describe in somewhat more detail the 4th wave of data collection, which has recently been completed and has provided us with extensive information on substance use and problem use as well as associated risk factors in the twins and their families, including longitudinal data on conduct problems and the relations between family members. Because of the wealth of data already collected and the opportunity for genetically informative analyses over time, CaStANET provides a valuable resource for understanding the complexities of the psychological development of young people.