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The limitations of self-report measures of dietary intake are well-known. Novel, technology-based measures of dietary intake may provide a more accurate, less burdensome alternative to existing tools. The first objective of this study was to compare participant burden for two technology-based measures of dietary intake among school-age children: the Automated-Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool-2018 (ASA24-2018) and the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM). The second objective was to compare reported energy intake for each method to the Estimated Energy Requirement for each child, as a benchmark for actual intake. Forty parent–child dyads participated in two, 3-d dietary assessments: a parent proxy-reported version of the ASA24 and the RFPM. A parent survey was subsequently administered to compare satisfaction, ease of use and burden with each method. A linear mixed model examined differences in total daily energy intake between assessments, and between each assessment method and the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER). Reported energy intake was 379 kcal higher with the ASA24 than the RFPM (P = 0·0002). Reported energy intake with the ASA24 was 231 kcal higher than the EER (P = 0·008). Reported energy intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly from the EER (difference in predicted means = −148 kcal, P = 0·09). Median satisfaction and ease of use scores were five out of six for both methods. A higher proportion of parents reported that the ASA24 was more time-consuming than the RFPM (74·4 % v. 25·6 %, P = 0·002). Utilisation of both methods is warranted given their high satisfaction among parents.
Background: As carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) prevalence increases in the United States, the risk of cocolonization with multiple CRE may also be increasing, with unknown clinical and epidemiological significance. In this study, we aimed to describe the epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of inpatients cocolonized with multiple CRE. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a large, multicenter prospective cohort study evaluating risk factors for CRE transmission to healthcare personnel gown and gloves. Patients were identified between January 2016 and June 2019 from 4 states. Patients enrolled in the study had a clinical or surveillance culture positive for CRE within 7 days of enrollment. We collected and cultured samples from the following sites from each CRE-colonized patient: stool, perianal area, and skin. A modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) was used to detect the presence or absence of carbapenemase(s). EDTA-modified CIM (eCIM) was used to differentiate between serine and metal-dependent carbapenemases. Results: Of the 313 CRE-colonized patients enrolled in the study, 28 (8.9%) were cocolonized with at least 2 different CRE. Additionally, 3 patients were cocolonized with >2 different CRE (1.0%). Of the 28 patients, 19 (67.6%) were enrolled with positive clinical cultures. Table 1 summarizes the demographic and clinical characteristics of these patients. The most frequently used antibiotic prior to positive culture was vancomycin (n = 33, 18.3%). Among the 62 isolates from 59 samples from 28 patients cocolonized patients, the most common CRE species were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 18, 29.0%), Escherichia coli (n = 10, 16.1%), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 9, 14.5%). Of the 62 isolates, 38 (61.3%) were mCIM positive and 8 (12.9%) were eCIM positive. Of the 38 mCIM-positive isolates, 33 (86.8%) were KPC positive, 4 (10.5%) were NDM positive, and 1 (2.6%) was negative for both KPC and NDM. Also, 2 E. coli, 1 K. pneumoniae, and 1 E. cloacae were NDM-producing CRE. Conclusion: Cocolonization with multiple CRE occurs frequently in the acute-care setting. Characterizing patients with CRE cocolonization may be important to informing infection control practices and interventions to limit the spread of these organisms, but further study is needed.
The continental shelf edge of the NW Gulf of Mexico supports dozens of reefs and banks, including the West and East Flower Garden Banks (FGB) and Stetson Bank that comprise the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Discovered by fishermen in the early 1900s, the FGBs are named after the colourful corals, sponges and algae that dominate the region. The reefs and banks are the surface expression of underlying salt domes and provide important habitat for mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) and deep coral communities to 300 m depth. Since 2001, FGBNMS research teams have utilized remotely operated vehicles (e.g. ‘Phantom S2’, ‘Mohawk’, ‘Yogi’) to survey and characterize benthic habitats of this region. In 2016, a Draft Environmental Impact Statement proposed the expansion of the current sanctuary boundaries to incorporate an additional 15 reefs and banks, including Elvers Bank. Antipatharians (black corals) were collected within the proposed expansion sites and analysed using morphological and molecular methods. A new species, Distichopathes hickersonae, collected at 172 m depth on Elvers Bank, is described within the family Aphanipathidae. This brings the total number of black coral species in and around the sanctuary to 14.
To investigate changes in socio-economic inequalities in growth in height, weight, BMI and grip strength in children born during 1955–1993 in Guatemala, a period of marked socio-economic-political change.
We modelled longitudinal data on height, weight, BMI and hand grip strength using Super-Imposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR). Internal Z-scores summarising growth size, timing and intensity (peak growth velocity, e.g. cm/year) were created to investigate inequalities by socio-economic position (SEP; measured by school attended). Interactions of SEP with date of birth were investigated to capture secular changes in inequalities.
Urban and peri-urban schools in the region of Guatemala City, Guatemala.
Participants were 40 484 children and adolescents aged 3–19 years of Ladino and Maya ancestry (nobservations 157 067).
The difference in height (SITAR size) between lowest and highest SEP decreased from −2·0 (95 % CI −2·2, −1·9) sd to −1·4 (95 % CI −1·5, −1·3) sd in males, and from −2·0 (95 % CI −2·1, −1·9) sd to −1·2 (95 % CI −1·3, −1·2) sd in females over the study period. Inequalities also reduced for weight, BMI and grip strength, due to greater secular increases in lowest-SEP groups. The puberty period was earlier and shorter in higher-SEP individuals (earlier SITAR timing and higher SITAR intensity). All SEP groups showed increases in BMI intensity over time.
Inequality narrowed between the 1960s and 1990s. The lowest-SEP groups were still >1 sd shorter than the highest. Risks remain for reduced human capital and poorer population health for urban Guatemalans.
Authentic learning is an approach to teaching where the learning is embedded in a real world context, in real situations or simulations, and offers students opportunities for problem solving challenges much like they will encounter in real life. This paper discusses and reflects upon the development a course designed to teach Socially Responsible Design approaches, methods and tools to Product Design Engineering students using global projects. Our research question was to investigate if this Socially Responsible Design course, it's structure, delivery, learning activities and assessments combined to deliver an authentic learning experience. Through informal interviews with staff, review of student reflections, review of university student feedback comments and consideration of final outcomes, all within the framework of Herrington and Oliver's nine elements of authentic learning, we found that this course did provide an authentic learning experience for many reasons. This study offers academics a frame work for reviewing existing and future courses with a view to creating or enhancing authentic learning experiences using project based learning
Safeguarding adults is everybody's business, and it is now standard practice for clinicians to undertake safeguarding training as part of their mandatory training in the UK. Nevertheless, safeguarding work is complex and can involve significant dilemmas for professionals. The Care Act 2014 has introduced a number of differences in the way safeguarding is approached, emphasising the overall well-being and choice of the patient rather than merely focusing on their safety. This paper sets out to illustrate evolving safeguarding demand and practice, and aid clinicians in protecting people at risk by describing how they can approach challenging presentations.
We aimed to explore multiple perspectives regarding barriers to and facilitators of advance care planning (ACP) among African Americans to identify similarities or differences that might have clinical implications.
Qualitative study with health disparities experts (n = 5), community members (n = 9), and seriously ill African American patients and caregivers (n = 11). Using template analysis, interviews were coded to identify intrapersonal, interpersonal, and systems-level themes in accordance with a social ecological framework.
Participants identified seven primary factors that influence ACP for African Americans: religion and spirituality; trust and mistrust; family relationships and experiences; patient-clinician relationships; prognostic communication, care preferences, and preparation and control. These influences echo those described in the existing literature; however, our data highlight consistent differences by group in the degree to which these factors positively or negatively affect ACP. Expert participants reinforced common themes from the literature, for example, that African Americans were not interested in prognostic information because of mistrust and religion. Seriously ill patients were more likely to express trust in their clinicians and to desire prognostic communication; they and community members expressed a desire to prepare for and control the end of life. Religious belief did not appear to negate these desires.
Significance of results
The literature on ACP in African Americans may not accurately reflect the experience of seriously ill African Americans. What are commonly understood as barriers to ACP may in fact not be. We propose reframing stereotypical barriers to ACP, such as religion and spirituality, or family, as cultural assets that should be engaged to enhance ACP. Although further research can inform best practices for engaging African American patients in ACP, findings suggest that respectful, rapport-building communication may facilitate ACP. Clinicians are encouraged to engage in early ACP using respectful and rapport building communication practices, including open-ended questions.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate intakes and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin E, and related compounds in a cohort of maternal–infant pairs in the Midwestern USA in relation to measures of health disparities. Concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in maternal serum were measured using HPLC and measures of socio-economic status, including food security and food desert residence, were obtained in 180 mothers upon admission to a Midwestern Academic Medical Center labour and delivery unit. The Kruskal–Wallis and independent-samples t tests were used to compare measures between groups; logistic regression models were used to adjust for relevant confounders. P < 0·05 was considered statistically significant. The odds of vitamin A insufficiency/deficiency were 2·17 times higher for non-whites when compared with whites (95 % CI 1·16, 4·05; P = 0·01) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Similarly, the odds of being vitamin E deficient were 3·52 times higher for non-whites (95 % CI 1·51, 8·10; P = 0·003). Those with public health insurance had lower serum lutein concentrations compared with those with private health insurance (P = 0·05), and living in a food desert was associated with lower serum concentrations of β-carotene (P = 0·02), after adjustment for confounders. Subjects with low/marginal food security had higher serum levels of lutein and β-cryptoxanthin compared with those with high food security (P = 0·004 and 0·02 for lutein and β-cryptoxanthin). Diet quality may be a public health concern in economically disadvantaged populations of industrialised societies leading to nutritional disadvantages as well.
Gamete donation offers a unique opportunity to compare men and women's relationships to reproductive decision-making, unlike other reproductive processes, which typically involve women's bodies much more asymmetrically. I address medical and reproductive decision-making by examining how a gamete donor's partner may be involved in the donation process. Some countries explicitly involve a donor's partner by legally requiring spousal consent for donation, but this is not the case for the U.S. In the absence of any formal regulation, what are the expectations for involving a donor's partner? Through a content analysis of materials from donation programs across the U.S., I examine how donation programs configure the partner's role. Overall, I find that there are quite different expectations for partner involvement in egg versus sperm donation. Such differences, I argue, both stem from and reinforce existing issues navigating boundaries between intimate relationships and women's medical and reproductive autonomy.
A qualitative ranking method, Q methodology, was used to assess stakeholder priorities for socioecological services derived from coastal marshes and communities. The goal was to reveal strength of concerns for and tradeoffs among effects of coastal resilience strategies. Factor analysis identified three perspectives that formed a spectrum from high to low priorities on intangible services. Academic and government stakeholders were more likely than local residents to prioritize intangible services, but stakeholder views were diverse. A collaborative learning process promoted some alignment of views and academics showed the most movement – towards residents’ perspectives. Q-sort appeared effective at efficiently synthesizing broad concerns.
Social relationships can impact youths’ eating and physical activity behaviours; however, the best strategies for intervening in the social environment are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to provide in-depth information on the social roles that youths’ parents and friends play related to eating and physical activity behaviours and to explore the impact of other social relationships on youths’ eating and physical activity behaviours.
Convergent parallel mixed-methods design.
Low-income, African American, food desert neighbourhoods in Baltimore City, MD, USA.
Data were collected from 297 youths (53 % female, 91 % African American, mean age 12·3 (sd 1·5) years) using structured questionnaires and combined with in-depth interviews from thirty-eight youths (42 % female, 97 % African American, mean age 11·4 (sd 1·5) years) and ten parents (80 % female, 50 % single heads of house, 100 % African American).
Combined interpretation of the results found that parents and caregivers have multiple, dynamic roles influencing youths’ eating and physical activity behaviours, such as creating health-promoting rules, managing the home food environment and serving as a role model for physical activity. Other social relationships have specific, but limited roles. For example, friends served as partners for physical activity, aunts provided exposure to novel food experiences, and teachers and doctors provided information related to eating and physical activity.
Obesity prevention programmes should consider minority youths’ perceptions of social roles when designing interventions. Specifically, future research is needed to test the effectiveness of intervention strategies that enhance or expand the supportive roles played by social relationships.
There is a growing body of literature describing the characteristics of patients who plan for the end of life, but little research has examined how caregivers influence patients' advance care planning (ACP). The purpose of this study was to examine how patient and caregiver characteristics are associated with advance directive (AD) completion among patients diagnosed with a terminal illness. We defined AD completion as having completed a living will and/or identified a healthcare power of attorney.
A convenience sample of 206 caregiver–patient dyads was included in the study. All patients were diagnosed with an advanced life-limiting illness. Trained research nurses administered surveys to collect information on patient and caregiver demographics (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, and individual annual income) and patients' diagnoses and completion of AD. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to model predictors for patients' AD completion.
Over half of our patient sample (59%) completed an AD. Patients who were older, diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and with a caregiver who was Caucasian or declined to report an income level were more likely to have an AD in place.
Significance of results:
Our results suggest that both patient and caregiver characteristics may influence patients' decisions to complete an AD at the end of life. When possible, caregivers should be included in advance care planning for patients who are terminally ill.
Driven by the unprecedented wealth of high quality data that is accumulating for the Frontier Fields, they are becoming some of the best-studied strong lensing clusters to date, and probably the next few years. As will be discussed intensively in this focus meeting, the FF prove transformative for many fields: from studies of the high redshift Universe, to the assembly and structure of the clusters themselves. The FF data and the extensive collaborative effort around this program will also allow us to examine and improve upon current lens modeling techniques. Strong lensing is a powerful tool for mass reconstruction of the cores of galaxy clusters of all scales, providing an estimate of the total (dark and seen) projected mass density distribution out to 0.5 Mpc. Though SL mass may be biased by contribution from structures along the line of sight, its strength is that it is relatively insensitive to assumptions on cluster baryon astrophysics and dynamical state. Like the Frontier Fields clusters, the most “famous” strong lensing clusters are at the high mass end; they lens dozens of background sources into multiple images, providing ample lensing constraints. In this talk, I will focus on how we can leverage what we learn from modeling the FF clusters in strong lensing studies of the hundreds of clusters that will be discovered in upcoming surveys. In typical clusters, unlike the Frontier Fields, the Bullet Cluster and A1689, we observe only one to a handful of background sources, and have limited lensing constraints. I will describe the limitations that such a configuration imposes on strong lens modeling, highlight measurements that are robust to the richness of lensing evidence, and address the sources of uncertainty and what sort of information can help reduce those uncertainties. This category of lensing clusters is most relevant to the wide cluster surveys of the future.
Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study.
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit.
Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden).
Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096).
High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance.
These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research.
Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories.
To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services.
In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services.
Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies.
Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have overlapping clinical symptoms that can lead to their misdiagnosis. We delineated the clinical overlap between sCJD and DLB, and assessed the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate between them.
Medical records, MRI, electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were reviewed from 56 sCJD and 30 DLB subjects.
46% of sCJD subjects met probable DLB criteria and 40% of DLB subjects met probable CJD criteria. A greater proportion of sCJD subjects had cerebellar signs (66% vs. 10%, p<0.001), myoclonus (64% vs. 30%, p=0.002), and visual symptoms (other than hallucinations) (61% vs. 7%, p<0.001), whereas more DLB subjects had hallucinations (70% vs. 39%, p=0.007) and fluctuations (57% vs. 23%, p=0.002). Cortical and/or basal ganglia MRI diffusion weighted imaging hyperintensities consistent with sCJD were seen in 96% of sCJD subjects but in none with DLB. Logistic regression in sCJD revealed that those meeting probable DLB criteria were more likely to have occipital lobe involvement on MRI (OR 1.4, p=0.058, model p=0.022). Parietal lobe involvement on MRI was a predictor of “Other Focal Cortical signs” (OR 1.9, p=0.021). EEG and CSF assessments lacked sensitivity for sCJD as 48% of sCJD patients had a negative EEG; 67% of the 36 sCJD patents with a CSF evaluation had a negative or inconclusive 14-3-3 result. Too few DLB patients had EEG or CSF to assess their utility.
Sporadic CJD and DLB have significant symptom overlap. MRI helps differentiate these diseases and is related to the signs/symptoms observed in sCJD.