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Children and young people with intellectual disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (autism) experience higher rates of mental health problems, including depression, than their typically developing peers. Although international guidelines suggest psychological therapies as first-line intervention for children and young people, there is limited evidence for psychological therapy for depression in children and young people with intellectual disability and/or autism.
To evaluate the current evidence base for psychological interventions for depression in children and young people with intellectual disability and/or autism, and examine the experiences of children and young people with intellectual disability and/or autism, their families and therapists, in receiving and delivering psychological treatment for depression.
Databases were searched up to 30 April 2020 using pre-defined search terms and criteria. Articles were independently screened and assessed for risk of bias. Data were synthesised and reported in a narrative review format.
A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Four identified studies were clinical case reports and six were quasi-experimental or experimental studies. All studies were assessed as being of moderate or high risk of bias. Participants with intellectual disability were included in four studies. There was limited data on the experiences of young people, their families or therapists in receiving or delivering psychological treatment for depression.
Well-designed, randomised controlled trials are critical to develop an evidence base for psychological treatment for young people with intellectual disability and/or autism with depression. Future research should evaluate the treatment experiences of young people, their families and therapists.
The relevance of schema theory to psychopathology, in particular personality disorder, in younger adults is established. Investigations into the relevance of schema theory to older adults, however, is highly limited.
To consider the relationship of schema modes to psychopathology in older adults and establish whether maladaptive schema modes are associated with unmet needs and that this relationship is mediated by the healthy adult mode of responding in this population.
One hundred and four older adults were recruited from an established database. Participants completed questionnaires assessing psychopathology, schema modes (YAMI: Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory) and basic psychological needs (BPNS: Basic Psychological Needs Scale – autonomy, competence and relatedness). Ninety-four responses were included after applying exclusion criteria.
The healthy adult schema mode was found to be associated with reduced psychopathology, and maladaptive child modes (angry and vulnerable child) to increased psychopathology. The healthy adult schema mode mediated the relationship between maladaptive child modes and needs satisfaction.
As predicted by schema theory, the presence of one of the maladaptive child modes makes it difficult for an older individual to have their needs met, but the presence of healthy adult mode works to support this process.
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