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Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have smaller vocabularies in infancy compared to typically-developing children. To understand whether their smaller vocabularies stem from problems in learning, our study compared a prospective risk sample of 18 elevated risk and 11 lower risk 24-month-olds on current vocabulary size and word learning ability using a paradigm in which parents teach their child words. Results revealed that both groups learned novel words, even though parents indicated that infants at elevated risk of ASD knew fewer words. This suggests that these early compromised vocabularies cannot be solely linked to difficulties in word formations.
To determine whether food security, diet diversity and diet quality are associated with anthropometric measurements and body composition among women of reproductive age. The association between food security and anaemia prevalence was also tested.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) study. Food security and dietary data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Hb levels were measured using a HemoCue, and anaemia was classified as an altitude-adjusted haemoglobin level < 12·5 g/dl. Body size and composition were assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
The urban township of Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Non-pregnant women aged 18–25 years (n 1534).
Almost half of the women were overweight or obese (44 %), and 9 % were underweight. Almost a third of women were anaemic (30 %). The prevalence rates of anaemia and food insecurity were similar across BMI categories. Food insecure women had the least diverse diets, and food security was negatively associated with diet quality (food security category v. diet quality score: B = –0·35, 95 % CI –0·70, –0·01, P = 0·049). Significant univariate associations were observed between food security and total lean mass. However, there were no associations between food security and body size or composition variables in multivariate models.
Our data indicate that food security is an important determinant of diet quality in this urban-poor, highly transitioned setting. Interventions to improve maternal and child nutrition should recognise both food security and the food environment as critical elements within their developmental phases.
To explore community perceptions on maternal and child nutrition issues in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Thirty focus groups with men and women from three communities facilitated by local researchers.
One urban (Soweto, South Africa) and two rural settings (Navrongo, Ghana and Nanoro, Burkina Faso) at different stages of economic transition.
Two hundred thirty-seven men and women aged 18–55 years, mostly subsistence farmers in Navrongo and Nanoro and low income in Soweto.
Differences in community concerns about maternal and child health and nutrition reflected the transitional stage of the country. Community priorities revolved around poor nutrition and hunger caused by poverty, lack of economic opportunity and traditional gender roles. Men and women felt they had limited control over food and other resources. Women wanted men to take more responsibility for domestic chores, including food provision, while men wanted more involvement in their families but felt unable to provide for them. Solutions suggested focusing on ways of increasing control over economic production, family life and domestic food supplies. Rural communities sought agricultural support, while the urban community wanted regulation of the food environment.
To be acceptable and effective, interventions to improve maternal and child nutrition need to take account of communities’ perceptions of their needs and address wider determinants of nutritional status and differences in access to food reflecting the stage of the country’s economic transition. Findings suggest that education and knowledge are necessary but not sufficient to support improvements in women’s and children’s nutritional status.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted health-care systems worldwide, leading to an unprecedented rise in demand for health-care resources. In anticipation of an acute strain on established medical facilities in Dallas, Texas, federal officials worked in conjunction with local medical personnel to convert a convention center into a Federal Medical Station capable of caring for patients affected by COVID-19. A 200,000 square foot event space was designated as a direct patient care area, with surrounding spaces repurposed to house ancillary services. Given the highly transmissible nature of the novel coronavirus, the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was of particular importance for personnel staffing the facility. Furthermore, nationwide shortages in the availability of PPE necessitated the reuse of certain protective materials. This article seeks to delineate the procedures implemented regarding PPE in the setting of a COVID-19 disaster response shelter, including workspace flow, donning and doffing procedures, PPE conservation, and exposure event protocols.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant burden on healthcare facilities. Universal gloving is a horizontal intervention to prevent transmission of pathogens that cause HAI. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to identify whether implementation of universal gloving is associated with decreased incidence of HAI in clinical settings.
A systematic literature search was conducted to find all relevant publications using search terms for universal gloving and HAIs. Pooled incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Woolf test and the I2 test.
In total, 8 studies were included. These studies were moderately to substantially heterogeneous (I2 = 59%) and had varied results. Stratified analyses showed a nonsignificant association between universal gloving and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; pooled IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79–1.11) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; pooled IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.69–1.28). Studies that implemented universal gloving alone showed a significant association with decreased incidence of HAI (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67–0.89), but studies implementing universal gloving as part of intervention bundles showed no significant association with incidence of HAI (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86–1.05).
Universal gloving may be associated with a small protective effect against HAI. Despite limited data, universal gloving may be considered in high-risk settings, such as pediatric intensive care units. Further research should be performed to determine the effects of universal gloving on a broader range of pathogens, including gram-negative pathogens.
Modern water-supply systems — hidden beneath the ground, constructed, expanded, adapted and repaired intermittently by multiple groups of people — are often messy and difficult to comprehend. The ancient water-supply system we consider here is no different — and perhaps even more complex as it was developed over 1200 years and then had a modern city built on top. Despite this, we are beginning to understand how one of the Roman world's most important cities provided its population with water.
The remains of water infrastructure in Constantinople attest to a complex system of water-management and distribution, one that developed from the colony of Byzantium, through the growth and eventual decline of the new capital of the Roman empire, until conquest by the Ottomans. Aqueducts — the system of channels, bridges and tunnels designed to carry water through the landscape — were the focus of infrastructure investment in earlier periods, but cisterns for the storage and distribution of water were constructed throughout the time of Byzantine Constantinople.
We use SCUBA-2, HARP C18O J= 3 → 2, Herschel and IRAM N2H+ J= 1 → 0 observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud to identify and characterise the properties of the starless cores in the region. The SCUBA-2, HARP and Herschel data were taken as part of the JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys. We determine masses and temperatures and perform a full virial analysis on our cores, and find that our cores are all either bound or virialised, with gravitational energy and external pressure energy on average of similar importance in confining the cores. There is wide variation from region to region, with cores in the region influenced by B stars (Oph A) being substantially gravitationally bound, and cores in the most quiescent region (Oph C) being pressure-confined. We observe dissipation of turbulence in all our cores, and find that this dissipation is more effective in regions which do not contain outflow-driving protostars. Full details of this analysis are presented by Pattle et al. (2015).
We show data from the SCUBA2 camera on JCMT, of molecular clouds. We focus on starless cores within the clouds. We present data of the Taurus region and show how the environment is affecting some cores' appearance in this region. We compare the SCUBA2 data with Herschel data and discuss the sensitivity of SCUBA2 to surface brightness in the sub-millimetre. We show how this leads to its ability to pick out the densest cores at a given temperature. Hence SCUBA2 preferentially picks out gravitationally bound pre-stellar cores. We discuss the effects of the magnetic field, and how this lends support to a model for the formation and evolution of cores in filamentary molecular clouds.
This review considers the definition of a healthy bone phenotype through the life course and the modulating effects of muscle function and nutrition. In particular, it will emphasise that optimal bone strength (and how that is regulated) is more important than simple measures of bone mass. The forces imposed on bone by muscle loading are the primary determinants of musculoskeletal health. Any factor that changes muscle loading on the bone, or the response of bone to loading results in alterations of bone strength. Advances in technology have enhanced the understanding of a healthy bone phenotype in different skeletal compartments. Multiple components of muscle strength can also be quantified. The critical evaluation of emerging technologies for assessment of bone and muscle phenotype is vital. Populations with low and moderate/high daily Ca intakes and/or different vitamin D status illustrate the importance of nutrition in determining musculoskeletal phenotype. Changes in mass and architecture maintain strength despite low Ca intake or vitamin D status. There is a complex interaction between body fat and bone which, in addition to protein intake, is emerging as a key area of research. Muscle and bone should be considered as an integrative unit; the role of body fat requires definition. There remains a lack of longitudinal evidence to understand how nutrition and lifestyle define musculoskeletal health. In conclusion, a life-course approach is required to understand the definition of healthy skeletal phenotype in different populations and at different stages of life.
The development of effective protocols for the control of crystal structure, size and morphology attracts considerable interest given the requirement for particles of modal size and shape in many areas of particle processing and the importance of crystallochemical selectivity in determining the exploitable properties of crystalline solids. In biological systems there are many examples of advanced “crystal engineering” in which materials are deposited in a highly controlled manner to produce crystal phases that are unique with respect to their structure, habit, uniformity of size and texture. A review of biomineralisation will show that while a complex array of strategies have evolved for regulating crystal growth, one feature is common to the biological paradigm. Interactions between supramolecular organic structures and the nascent inorganic solids play a fundamental role in controlling the deposition of the biominerals and ordering the assembly of these units into hierarchical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular recognition events, which take place at the organic-inorganic interface, a bio-inspired crystal chemical approach has been adopted. For this work organised organic assemblies (e.g. surfactant aggregates, peptide mimics, dendrimers) of precise molecular design (head group identity, packing conformation, primary sequence etc.) are being assayed for their effectiveness in controlling the nucleation and growth of crystals. It is evident from these studies that the chemical organisation of the polymeric microenvironment operates at the molecular level to control certain aspects of the nucleation, growth and stabilisation of inorganic particles. By systematically changing the molecular motif of the organic template we have established that the size, crystallographic orientation, growth and assembly of the mineral phase can be tailored to function. These results have relevance not only to our understanding of biomineralisation but also suggest a multiplicity of exploitable opportunities for the engineering of crystals.
Atomistic simulation methods have been used to model the structure of the (1014) surfaces of calcite, dolomite, and magnesite under dry and wet conditions. The potential parameters for the carbonate and water species contain shell terms to model the polarizability of the oxygen atoms. These static calculations show that the surfaces undergo relaxation leading to the rotation and distortion of the carbonate groups with associated movement of cations. The dry surface energies are 0.322, 0.247, and 0.256 Jm−2 for calcite, dolomite, and magnesite respectively. The influence of water on the surface structure and energies has been investigated for monolayer coverage. When fully hydrated with a monolayer of water, the surface energy for calcite is reduced indicating a stabilization of the surface with hydration. The extent of carbonate group distortion is greater for the dry surfaces compared to the hydrated surfaces, and for the dry calcite relative to that for dry magnesite.
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