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Whole-grain wheat, in particular coloured varieties, may have health benefits in adults with chronic metabolic disease risk factors. Twenty-nine overweight and obese adults with chronic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) > 1·0 mg/l) replaced four daily servings of refined grain food products with bran-enriched purple or regular whole-wheat convenience bars (approximately 41–45 g fibre, daily) for 8 weeks in a randomised, single-blind parallel-arm study where body weight was maintained. Anthropometrics, blood markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipaemia and metabolites of anthocyanins and phenolic acids were compared at days 1, 29 and 57 using repeated-measures ANOVA within groups and ANCOVA between groups at day 57, with day 1 as a covariate. A significant reduction in IL-6 and increase in adiponectin were observed within the purple wheat (PW) group. TNF-α was lowered in both groups and ferulic acid concentration increased in the regular wheat (RW) group. Comparing between wheats, only plasma TNF-α and glucose differed significantly (P < 0·05), that is, TNF-α and glucose decreased with RW and PW, respectively. Consumption of PW or RW products showed potential to improve plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in participants with evidence of chronic inflammation, with modest differences observed based on type of wheat.
In 1969, Robert E. Gregg collected five species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in three Subarctic localities near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, which he documented in a 1972 publication in The Canadian Entomologist. To determine whether there have been any additions to the local fauna – as might be predicted to occur in response to a warming climate and increased traffic to the Port of Churchill in the intervening 40 years – we re-collected ants from the same localities in 2012. We identified the ants we collected from Gregg’s sampling sites using both traditional morphological preparations and DNA barcoding. In addition, we examined specimens from Gregg’s initial collection that are accessioned at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America). Using this integrative approach we report seven species present at the same sites Gregg sampled 40 years earlier. We conclude that the apparent increase is likely not due to any arrivals from more southerly distributed ants, but to the increased resolution provided by DNA barcodes to resident species complexes with a complicated history. We provide a brief synopsis of these results and their taxonomic context.
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