To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study aimed to identify the nature and effects of implementation strategies to increase the use of evidence-based, non-pharmacological interventions designed to reduce the frequency and/or severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia, for people living in the community.
This was a systematic review of implementation studies. We searched six databases (in January 2019) and hand-searched reference lists of reports. Studies were included if they used quantitative methods evaluating the use of implementation strategies to increase the use of non-pharmacological interventions. These interventions had to have been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and found to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, for those living in the community. Studies needed to report the effect of the implementation on clinical practice, for example, a change in practice or the adoption of the intervention in community settings.
Twelve studies were included: 11 one-group pre-post design studies and 1 cluster RCT. All studies reported practice change – the majority implementing a new intervention, with six different types of interventions implemented. All studies reported including using partnerships, new funding, educational strategies, and ongoing support and consultation. Seven implementation studies reported positive outcomes for clients on some aspect of behavior or depression for the person with dementia.
Implementation studies using multiple implementation strategies to increase the use of non-pharmacological interventions have demonstrated improvements in behavioral and psychological symptoms common in people with dementia, when provided by clinicians as part of their everyday work routines.
The Tailored Activity Program (TAP) is an evidence-based occupational therapist-led intervention for people living with dementia and their care partners at home, developed in the USA. This study sought to understand its acceptability to people living with dementia, their care partners, and health professionals, and factors that might influence willingness to participate prior to its implementation in Australia.
This study used qualitative descriptive methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people living with dementia in the community (n = 4), their care partners (n = 13), and health professionals (n = 12). People living with dementia were asked about health professionals coming to their home to help them engage in activities they enjoy, whereas care partners’ and health professionals’ perspectives of TAP were sought, after it was described to them. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or via telephone. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes.
Analysis identified four key themes labelled: (i) TAP sounds like a good idea; (ii) the importance of enjoyable activities; (iii) benefits for care partners; and (iv) weighing things up. Findings suggest the broad, conditional acceptability of TAP from care partners and health professionals, who also recognised challenges to its use. People living with dementia expressed willingness to receive help to continue engaging in enjoyable activities, if offered.
While TAP appeared generally acceptable, a number of barriers were identified that must be considered prior to, and during its implementation. This study may inform implementation of non-pharmacological interventions more broadly.
Implementation of novel interventions occurs within broad organisational contexts, which contain many relationships and moving parts. Efforts need to be made to understand these relationships as they are an important predictor of successful implementation. This study examines the relationships between health professionals involved in the implementation of an evidence-based community program for people with dementia and their carers in Australia, The Care of People with dementia in their Environments program.
This study utilised mixed methods including in-depth interviews and organisational diagrams. Qualitative data from 28 interviews were collected from occupational therapists, nurses and their managers. Recruitment ensured a variety of different organisational contexts were represented. Thematic analysis was used to capture key emergent themes.
The strongest relationships were usually between the occupational therapist and their manager. Strong trusting relationships with managers were instrumental in advocating for the need for reablement programs and the occupational therapy professional role in dementia care. Large teams of occupational therapists were seen to be beneficial in supporting each other in case complexities. Relationships between occupational therapists and nurses were often missing or perceived as weak relationships. A conducive physical environment contributed to stronger more collaborative relationships, where individuals were visible and therefore felt to be more approachable.
Our study highlights the additional preparation work that is required of organisations to consider relationships in their strategies for implementation.
Evidence-based reablement programs for people with dementia and their caregivers are not routinely implemented in practice. These programs have been shown to be effective in delaying functional decline and improving caregiver wellbeing. Yet, little is known about the experiences of those participating in such programs.
To describe experiences and outcomes of participating in a dementia reablement program, the Care of Persons with dementia in their Environments (COPE), in Australia.
Purposeful sampling was used and semi-structured interviews were completed with people with dementia and their caregivers who received the COPE program in two different states in Australia. The interviews explored the participants’ experiences with the program as well as how they are managing after program completion. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the interviews. A Likert scale was used to rate the value of the program.
Ten dyads (person with dementia and/or their caregiver) were interviewed. Participation in the program was rated (mostly) very valuable. The ongoing collaboration between the therapist and caregiver was considered empowering. The program promoted participation in everyday activities for the person with dementia and appeared to give a ‘second chance’ to remain in their own homes and communities.
Participation in reablement programs (such as the COPE program) has the potential to re-engage people with dementia in meaningful roles and activities in their chosen environments. A therapeutic relationship and individualized intervention approaches tailored to the participants’ needs and readiness foster positive experiences and confidence.
Delirium is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by disturbed consciousness, cognitive function, or perception and associated with serious adverse outcomes such as death, dementia, and the need for long-term care. However, recognition and management of delirium is poorly prioritized even though it is the most frequent complication among patients undergoing surgery following hip fracture. The aim of this study was to understand clinicians’ from orthopedic speciality perceptions in relation to recognition, diagnosis, and management of delirium.
This was a qualitative study using in-depth focus groups discussions with clinical staff of one orthopedic unit within a level 1 trauma center, south of Adelaide, South Australia.
A total number of 17 individuals (14 nurses, 1 geriatric registrar, 1 nursing manager, and 1 speech therapist) participated in the focus groups. Four major themes were identified: (1) Delirium is important but can be hard to recognize and validate; (2) ambiguity on the use of delirium screening tool; (3) need of designated delirium care pathway; and (4) vital role of the family. Despite the initial lack of agreement on use of the objective tool to screen delirium, nurses did propose a number of ways that formal delirium screening could be included in routine nursing duties and existing nursing documentation.
Although orthopedic nurses aim to provide effective care to patients experiencing delirium symptoms following hip fracture, they are doing so in the absence of structured screening, assessment, and multidisciplinary team approach. This study emphasizes the various barriers which need to be considered before attempting to change practice in this important area.
Delirium is the most frequent complication among the hospitalized elderly with hip fracture. Although, delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, higher mortality rates, worse functional outcomes, and higher institutionalization rates yet health service planners have hugely ignored its existence. This review aims to identify the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium in hospitalized elderly patients with hip fracture.
This review includes experimental, non-experimental, and observational studies. Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and Web of science.
After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, nine full text articles were included in the review. The studies reported the following effect on delirium: We pooled data regarding incidence of delirium from the three RCTs. The effect was in favor of the intervention group (odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.46–0.87). All three RCTs reported that duration of delirium was shorter in the intervention group than in the usual care group (mean 2.9 vs. 3.1 days, median 3 vs. 4 days, median 5.0 vs. 10.2 days). Four other studies reported on the duration of delirium with Milisen and colleagues reported shorter duration of delirium within the intervention group. Four studies reported on severity of delirium with two research groups reporting significant results.
Early engagement of multidisciplinary staff who addresses the risk factors of delirium as soon as the patient presents to the acute care environment is the key element of a successful delirium prevention program. Once delirium had developed, the multicomponent interventions did not appear to make a difference to the duration or severity of delirium.
This systematic overview reports findings from systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched to September 2015.
Fifteen systematic reviews of eighteen different interventions were included. A significant improvement in BPSD was seen with: functional analysis-based interventions (GRADE quality of evidence moderate; standardized mean difference (SMD) −0.10, 95%CI −0.20 to 0.00), music therapy (low; SMD −0.49, 95%CI −0.82 to −0.17), analgesics (low; SMD −0.24, 95%CI −0.47 to −0.01), donepezil (high; SMD −0.15 95% CI −0.29 to −0.01), galantamine (high; SMD −0.15, 95%CI −0.28 to −0.03), and antipsychotics (high; SMD −0.13, 95%CI −0.21 to −0.06). The estimate of effect size for most interventions was small.
Although some pharmacological interventions had a slightly larger effect size, current evidence suggests functional analysis-based interventions should be used as first line management of BPSD whenever possible due to the lack of associated adverse events. Music therapy may also be beneficial, but further research is required as the quality of evidence to support its use is low. Cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil and galantamine should be trialled for the management of BPSD where non-pharmacological treatments have failed. Low-quality evidence suggests that assessment of pain should be conducted and a stepped analgesic approach trialled when appropriate. Antipsychotics have proven effectiveness but should be avoided where possible due to the high risk of serious adverse events and availability of safer alternatives.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.