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To re-examine the use of noncarbapenems (NCBPs), specifically piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and cefepime (FEP), for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacterales bloodstream infections (ESBL-E BSIs).
Retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center.
The study included patients hospitalized between May 2016 and May 2019 with a positive blood culture for ESBL-E. Patients were excluded if they received treatment with antibiotics other than meropenem, ertapenem, PTZ, or FEP. Patients were also excluded if they were aged <18 years, received antibiotics for <24 hours, were treated for polymicrobial BSI, or received concomitant antibiotic therapy for a separate gram-negative infection.
We compared CBPs with FEP or PTZ for the treatment of ESBL-E BSI. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included clinical cure, microbiologic cure, infection recurrence, and resistance development.
Data from 114 patients were collected and analyzed; 74 (65%) patients received carbapenem (CBP) therapy and 40 (35%) patients received a NCBP (30 received FEP and 10 received PTZ). The overall in-hospital mortality was 6% (N = 7), with a higher death rate in the CBP arm than in the N-CBP arm, (8% vs 3%; P = .42). No difference in mortality was detected between subgroups with Pitt bacteremia score ≥4, those requiring ICU admission, those whose infections were cause by a nongenitourinary source or causative organism (ie, 76 had Escherichia coli and 38 had Klebsiella spp). We detected no differences in secondary outcomes between the groups.
Compared to CBPs, FEP and PTZ did not result in greater mortality or decreased clinical efficacy for the treatment of ESBL-E BSI caused by susceptible organisms.
To determine whether transfer from a long-term care facility (LTCF) is a risk factor for colonization with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing Enterobacteriaceae upon acute care hospital admission.
Microbiologic survey and nested case-control study.
Four hospitals in a metropolitan area (Chicago) with an early KPC epidemic.
Patients transferred from LTCFs were matched 1 : 1 to patients admitted from the community by age (± 10 years), admitting clinical service, and admission date (± 2 weeks). Rectal swab specimens were collected within 3 days after admission and tested for KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Demographic and clinical information was extracted from medical records.
One hundred eighty patients from LTCFs were matched to 180 community patients. KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization was detected in 15 (8.3%) of the LTCF patients and 0 (0%) of the community patients (P<.001). Prevalence of carriage differed by LTCF subtype: 2 of 135 (1.5%) patients from skilled nursing facilities without ventilator care (SNFs) were colonized upon admission, compared to 9 of 33 (27.3%) patients from skilled nursing facilities with ventilator care (VSNFs) and 4 of 12 (33.3%) patients from long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs; P<.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for a propensity score that predicted LTCF subtype, patients admitted from VSNFs or LTACHs had 7.0-fold greater odds of colonization (ie, odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–42; P = .022) with KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae than patients from an SNF.
Patients admitted to acute care hospitals from high-acuity LTCFs (ie, VSNFs and LTACHs) were more likely to be colonized with KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae than were patients admitted from the community. Identification of healthcare facilities with a high prevalence of colonized patients presents an opportunity for focused interventions that may aid regional control efforts.
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