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Preeclampsia (PE) affects up to five times more women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM) than women without it. The present study aimed to identify the effect of the DASH diet on PE incidence (primary outcome) and blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (GH), serum lipids, glutathione peroxidase (GP), C-reactive protein (CRP – secondary outcomes) in pregnant with PDM. This randomised, controlled, single-blind trial studied sixty-eight pregnant women with PDM throughout prenatal care until delivery (18 weeks) at a public maternity hospital, Brazil. The standard diet group (SDG) received a diet containing 45–65 % carbohydrates, 15–20 % protein and 25–30 % lipids. The DASH diet group (DDG) received the adapted DASH diet with a similar macronutrient distribution, but with a higher concentration of fibres, unsaturated fats, calcium, magnesium and potassium as well as lower saturated fat. Student's t, Mann–Whitney U and the Chi-square tests were used to compare outcomes. PE incidence was 22⋅9 % in the SDG and 12⋅1 % in the DDG (P = 0⋅25). GP levels significantly increased in the DDG (intra-group analysis; mean difference = 1588 [CI 181, 2994], P = 0⋅03) and tended to be different from the variation in the SDG (mean difference = −29⋅5 [CI −1305; 1⋅365]; v. DDG: 1588 [CI 181; 2994], P = 0⋅09). GH levels decreased significantly and similarly between groups (SDG: −0⋅61 [CI −0⋅26, −0⋅96], P = 0⋅00) v. DDG: −1⋅1 [CI −0⋅57, −1⋅62], P = 0⋅00). There was no evidence of a difference in PE incidence at the end of the intervention between the two diets. The DASH diet seems to favour PE-related biochemical markers.
Cruzia tentaculata is a helminth parasite of marsupials and has a wide geographic distribution from Mexico to Argentina. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic population structure of this nematode along the Atlantic Forest biome. Cruzia tentaculata specimens were recovered from Didelphis aurita, Didelphis albiventris and Philander quica in 9 localities. Morphological and morphometric data were investigated for phenotypic diversity among localities and hosts using multivariate discriminant analysis of principal components. Phylogenetic relationships of C. tentaculata were determined using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The population structure was analysed by fixation indices, molecular variance analysis, Tajima's D and Fu's Fs neutrality tests, Mantel tests and Bayesian clustering analysis. A higher significant morphometric difference for males was observed between localities. In the haplogroup networks, 2 groups were recovered, separating locations from the north and from the south/southeast. The morphometric variation in C. tentaculata between different localities was compatible with this north and southeast/south pattern, suggesting adaptation to different ecological conditions. Population genetic analyses suggested a pattern of evolutionary processes driven by Pleistocene glacial refugia in the northeast and southeast of the Atlantic Forest based on the distribution of genetic diversity.
To evaluate the association of the consumption of foods of the ultra-processed group (UPF) with inflammatory markers in the adolescent population in Northeastern Brazil.
A cross-sectional population-based study. Food consumption was evaluated using two 24-h dietary recalls using the NOVA classification for food processing levels. The following inflammatory markers were evaluated: adiponectin, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF-α. Multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the association between the percentage of UPF energy contribution and inflammatory markers.
São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil.
The sample consisted of 391 male and female adolescents, aged from 17 to 18 years.
The average daily energy consumption by adolescents was 8032·9 kJ/d, of which 26·1 % originated from UPF. The upper tertile (T3) of UPF consumption presented higher intake of simple carbohydrates, lipids, saturated fat, and Na and lower protein intake. Individuals in T3 presented higher serum leptin and CRP levels (P < 0·05). Adolescents with UPF energy consumption ≥30·0 % (tertile 3 of UPF) had a 79 % (exp (0·58) = 1·79) increase in IL-8 levels when compared with adolescents in tertile 1 of UPF (P = 0·013).
The association between the consumption of UPF, poor quality diet and pro-inflammatory markers have important harmful effects that can be observed as early as in adolescence.
Hancornia speciosa Gomes is popularly known as mangabeira and occurs throughout Brazil. It belongs to the Apocynaceae family and is very important for its food and medicinal uses. The objective of this study was to perform the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaves of H. speciosa. Microscope slides were made containing cross sections of petiole and leaf blade, as well as paradermic sections of the leaf blade. The analyses were performed under light and polarized microscopy. For the histochemical analysis, different reagents were used, according to the targeted metabolite. Through microscopic analysis, it was possible to identify the anatomical structures that provide the detailed diagnosis of the studied species. Through histochemistry, the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, alkaloids, triterpenes and steroids, lipophilic compounds, lignin, starch, and calcium oxalate crystals was evidenced in the leaf blade. Thus, the results presented contribute to the quality control of H. speciosa, as well as to bring unpublished data about the species and to increase knowledge about the Apocynaceae family.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on glycaemic control and consumption of processed (PF) and ultraprocessed (UPF) foods in pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM). This is a randomised, controlled, single-blind clinical trial with forty-nine adult women with PGDM, followed at a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The control group (CG) received a standard diet consisting of 45–55 % of the total energy intake of carbohydrates, 15–20 % of proteins and 25–30 % of lipids. The DASH group (DG) received an adapted DASH diet, which did not differ from the standard diet in the percentage of macronutrients, but had higher contents of fibre, unsaturated fats and minerals such as Ca, Mg and K; and lower contents of Na and saturated fats than the standard diet. In the analysis by protocol, the DG presented a higher incidence of glycaemic control after 12 weeks of intervention (57·1 v. 8·3 %, P = 0·01, moderate effect size) and a lower mean consumption of UPF (−9·9 %, P = 0·01) compared with the CG. There was no statistically significant difference in fasting and postprandial blood glucose concentrations, or in the consumption of PF between the groups (P > 0·05). The DASH diet may be a strategy for glycaemic control in pregnant women with PGDM, favouring the adoption of a nutritionally adequate diet with lower consumption of UPF. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of the DASH diet on glycaemic profile, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with PGDM.
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