To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is widely assumed that celebrities are imbued with political capital and the power to move opinion. To understand the sources of that capital in the specific domain of sports celebrity, we investigate the popularity of global soccer superstars. Specifically, we examine players’ success in the Ballon d’Or—the most high-profile contest to select the world’s best player. Based on historical election results as well as an original survey of soccer fans, we find that certain kinds of players are significantly more likely to win the Ballon d’Or. Moreover, we detect an increasing concentration of votes on these kinds of players over time, suggesting a clear and growing hierarchy in the competition for soccer celebrity. Further analyses of support for the world’s two best players in 2016 (Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo) show that, if properly adapted, political science concepts like partisanship have conceptual and empirical leverage in ostensibly non-political contests.
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, which can develop in domestic as well as wild animals and humans throughout the world. Currently, this disease is spreading in rural and urban areas of non-endemic regions in Brazil. Recently, bats have gained epidemiological significance in leishmaniasis due to its close relationship with human settlements. In this study, we investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in blood samples from 448 bats belonging to four families representing 20 species that were captured in the Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba areas of Minas Gerais State (non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis), Brazil. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected in 8·0% of the blood samples, 41·6% of which were Leishmania infantum, 38·9% Leishmania amazonensis and 19·4% Leishmania braziliensis. No positive correlation was found between Leishmania spp. and bat food source. The species with more infection rates were the insectivorous bats Eumops perotis; 22·2% (4/18) of which tested positive for Leishmania DNA. The presence of Leishmania in the bat blood samples, as observed in this study, represents epidemiological importance due to the absence of Leishmaniasis cases in the region.
It is a well-established finding that proportional representation (PR) electoral systems are associated with greater legislative representation for women than single member systems. However, the degree to which different types of PR rules affect voting for female candidates has not been fully explored. The existing literature is also hampered by a reliance on cross-national data in which individual vote preferences and electoral system features are endogenous. In this study, we draw upon an experiment conducted during the 2014 European Parliament (EP) elections to isolate the effects of different PR electoral systems. Participants in the experiment were given the opportunity to vote for real EP candidates in three different electoral systems: closed list, open list, and open list with panachage and cumulation. Because voter preferences can be held constant across the three different votes, we can evaluate the extent to which female candidates were more or less advantaged by the electoral system itself. We find that voters, regardless of their gender, support female candidates, and that this support is stronger under open electoral rules.
Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.
Clustering analysis indicate that at z ~ 2 submm-selected galaxies (SMGs) reside in very massive halos (MDM > 5 × 1013), suggesting that SMGs trace high-density environments that evolve into rich galaxy clusters. Conversely, recent work suggests that SMGs are tracers of a broader range of environments, including structures with more modest masses caught in highly active periods; since galaxies in these structures are likely caught during episodes of peak starbursts, SMGs may be tracers of a wider range of environments beyond the progenitors of todays very rich clusters, opening a window for a more complete exploration of the details underpinning the process of galaxy evolution in concert with the assembly of the large scale structure (LSS). We have undertaken a large observing program comprising deep narrow-band Ly-alpha imaging and multi-object spectroscopy using Palomar/Keck/Magellan/Gemini telescopes to probe for galaxy overdensities in SMG environments at z ~ 1 − 5. With ~200 spectroscopically-confirmed Ly-alpha emitters, we are in a position to gauge the level of galaxy overdensity in these regions.
The enterohormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is required to amplify glucose-induced insulin secretion that facilitates peripheral glucose utilisation. Alteration in GLP-1 secretion during obesity has been reported but is still controversial. Due to the high adaptability of intestinal cells to environmental changes, we hypothesised that the density of GLP-1-producing cells could be modified by nutritional factors to prevent the deterioration of metabolic condition in obesity. We quantified L-cell density in jejunum samples collected during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in forty-nine severely obese subjects analysed according to their fat consumption. In mice, we deciphered the mechanisms by which a high-fat diet (HFD) makes an impact on enteroendocrine cell density and function. L-cell density in the jejunum was higher in obese subjects consuming >30 % fat compared with low fat eaters. Mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks displayed an increase in GLP-1-positive cells in the jejunum and colon accordingly to GLP-1 secretion. The regulation by the HFD appears specific to GLP-1-producing cells, as the number of PYY (peptide YY)-positive cells remained unchanged. Moreover, genetically obese ob/ob mice did not show alteration of GLP-1-positive cell density in the jejunum or colon, suggesting that obesity per se is not sufficient to trigger the mechanism. The higher L-cell density in HFD-fed mice involved a rise in L-cell terminal differentiation as witnessed by the increased expression of transcription factors downstream of neurogenin3 (Ngn3). We suggest that the observed increase in GLP-1-positive cell density triggered by high fat consumption in humans and mice might favour insulin secretion and therefore constitute an adaptive response of the intestine to balance diet-induced insulin resistance.
This article reports on an Internet-based quasi-experiment that took place during the French 2012 presidential election. We designed a website where French voters could vote under different voting rules. Based on the observation of more than 8,000 participants, we find that a substantial minority (10% to 15%) vote differently under the different systems, with 17% of the voters not voting for their preferred candidate in the one-round election, this percentage dropped to 12% in the alternative vote (first choice). Compared to the two-rounds election, at the aggregate level, the top two candidates get slightly more votes under one round, while the minor candidates obtain more first choices under the alternative vote. These findings are consistent with what the literature suggests about the impact of these voting systems on voters' choice.
Background: The effect of mental retrieval of an exposure session was investigated during a follow-up examination in dental phobia patients. Method: The exposure session took place at the psychology unit and the follow-up a week later at the dental clinic prior to dental treatment while patients were seated in the dental chair. During exposure, individuals with dental phobia (N = 72) were shown a video of a dental appointment, after which they were instructed to imagine themselves receiving dental treatment. During follow-up half of the participants received instructions to mentally retrieve the exposure session and the other half were asked to recall everyday activities. Before and after exposure treatment, and after mental retrieval, participants were shown three dental instruments while heart rate (HR) and avoidance and subjective units of discomfort (SUD) were recorded. Results: Questionnaires of phobic anxiety administered before and after treatment indicated significant improvement. Mental retrieval of treatment was moderately superior to the control condition with regard to avoidance. Over 80% of patients underwent the subsequent dental treatment session. Those not adhering showed initially more dysfunctional cognitions and more desire for control. Conclusion: There is some evidence that retrieval of treatment context may have a moderately beneficial effect on avoidance.
The circular fortress of Trelleborg on Zealand in Denmark is well known as a military camp with a key role in the formation of the Danish state under Harald Bluetooth in the tenth century AD. Taking a sample of 48 burials from the fort, strontium isotope analysis once again demonstrates its ability to eavesdrop on a community: at Trelleborg, the young men in its cemetery were largely recruited from outside Denmark, perhaps from Norway or the Slavic regions. Even persons buried together proved to have different origins, and the three females sampled were all from overseas, including a wealthy woman with a silver casket. Trelleborg, home of Harald Bluetooth's army, was a fortress of foreigners with vivid implications for the nature of his political mission.
We sought to assess the applicability of the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) in the prehospital setting by comparing CTAS scores assigned during ambulance transportation by base hospital (BH) nurses with CTAS scores given by emergency department (ED) nurses on patients' arrival.
We recruited a prospective sample of consecutive patients who were transported to the ED by ambulance between December 2006 and March 2007 for whom a contact was made with the BH. Patients were triaged by the BH nurse with online communication and vital signs transmission. On arrival, patients were blindly triaged again by the ED nurse. We used the quadratic weighted κ statistic to measure the agreement between the 2 CTAS scores.
Ninety-four patients were triaged twice by 2 nursing teams (9 nurses at the BH and 39 nurses in the ED). The agreement obtained on prehospital and ED CTAS scores was moderate (κ = 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.63).
The moderate interrater agreement we obtained may be a result of the changing conditions of patients during transport or may indicate that CTAS scoring requires direct contact to produce reliable triage scores. Our study casts a serious doubt on the appropriateness of BH nurses performing triage with CTAS in the prehospital setting.
The cloud of ejecta resulting from a final helium shell flash in V605 Aql has been imaged in both optical emission lines and infrared continuum. The obscuring circumstellar dust cloud, whose effects were first seen in 1923, is shown to be bipolar, suggesting dust formation takes place in a disk surrounding this star. The ongoing stellar mass loss in V605 Aql is part of the final flash episode, which has been ongoing since 1919. The pre-final flash planetary nebula, A58, is nearly circular. This implies that significant changes in the mass loss process occur between the AGB and final flash stages.
We prove a collection of results inspired by Krengel's theorem on the existence of partitions with infinitely many independent iterates in any weakly mixing measure-preserving dynamical system. Our approach avoids Krengel's use of two-fold mixing thereby obtaining stronger results, including characterizations of mild and strong mixing, as well as weak mixing. We also obtain results for non-weakly mixing systems and for more general group actions.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.