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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are promising tools to help identify the underlying pathology of neurocognitive disorders. In this manuscript, we report our experience with AD CSF biomarkers in 262 consecutive patients in a tertiary care memory clinic.
We retrospectively reviewed 262 consecutive patients who underwent lumbar puncture (LP) and CSF measurement of AD biomarkers (Aβ1–42, total tau or t-tau, and p-tau181). We studied the safety of the procedure and its impact on patient’s diagnosis and management.
The LP allowed to identify underlying AD pathology in 72 of the 121 patients (59%) with early onset amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with a high probability of progression to AD; to distinguish the behavioral/dysexecutive variant of AD from the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in 25 of the 45 patients (55%) with an atypical neurobehavioral profile; to identify AD as the underlying pathology in 15 of the 27 patients (55%) with atypical or unclassifiable primary progressive aphasia (PPA); and to distinguish AD from other disorders in 9 of the 29 patients (31%) with psychiatric differential diagnoses and 19 of the 40 patients (47%) with lesional differential diagnoses (normal pressure hydrocephalus, encephalitis, prion disease, etc.). No major complications occurred following the LP.
Our results suggest that CSF analysis is a safe and effective diagnostic tool in select patients with neurocognitive disorders. We advocate for a wider use of this biomarker in tertiary care memory clinics in Canada.
To estimate the minimum prevalence of adult hereditary ataxias (HA) and spastic paraplegias (HSP) in Eastern Quebec and to evaluate the proportion of associated mutations in identified genes.
We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of HA (n = 241) and HSP (n = 115) in the East of the Quebec province between January 2007 and July 2019. The primary outcome was the prevalence per 100,000 persons with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The secondary outcome was the frequency of mutations identified by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Minimum carrier frequency for identified variants was calculated based on allele frequency values and the Hardy–Weinberg (HW) equation.
The minimum prevalence of HA in Eastern Quebec was estimated at 6.47/100 000 [95% CI; 6.44–6.51]; divided into 3.73/100 000 for autosomal recessive (AR) ataxias and 2.67/100 000 for autosomal dominant (AD) ataxias. The minimum prevalence of HSP was 4.17/100 000 [95% CI; 4.14–4.2]; with 2.05/100 000 for AD-HSP and 2.12/100 000 for AR-HSP. In total, 52.4% of patients had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. AR cerebellar ataxia type 1 (2.67/100 000) and AD spastic paraplegia SPG4 (1.18/100 000) were the most prevalent disorders identified. Mutations were identified in 23 genes and molecular alterations in 7 trinucleotides repeats expansion; the most common mutations were c.15705–12 A > G in SYNE1 and c.1529C > T (p.A510V) in SPG7.
We described the minimum prevalence of genetically defined adult HA and HSP in Eastern Quebec. This study provides a framework for international comparisons and service planning.
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