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To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Linda A. Teplin, Owen L. Coon Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Director Psycho-Legal Studies Program Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University 710 N. Lake Shore Drive Room 900 Chicago, IL 60611 USA,
Karen M. Abram, Assistant Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Gary M. McClelland, Research Assistant Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Amy A. Mericle, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, USA,
Mina K. Dulcan, Osterman Professor of Psychiatry, Behavioral Sciences, and Pediatrics Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Jason J. Washburn, Research Assistant Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, USA,
Shiraz Butt, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center Marshall Field IV Building 1720 West Polk Street Chicago, IL 60612 USA
A comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees is an important step toward meeting their needs. Although epidemiological data are key to understanding the psychiatric disorders of juvenile detainees, few empirical studies exist. This chapter lists studies published in the United States since 1990 that examined the diagnostic characteristics of incarcerated and detained juveniles. The Northwestern Juvenile Project was designed to overcome the methodological limitations in two ways. Four directions for future research are recommended: pathways to co-morbidity, studies of females in the juvenile justice system, longitudinal studies, and studies of vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in high-risk youth. Research findings indicate that a substantial number of youth in detention need mental health services. However, providing services within the juvenile justice system poses a number of challenges: screening for mental health needs, providing services, community linkages, and avoid retraumatizing youth.
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