To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a notifiable disease affecting chickens and other avian species caused by virulent strains of Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1). While outbreaks of ND can have devastating consequences, avirulent strains of APMV-1 generally cause subclinical infections or mild disease. However, viruses can cause different levels of disease in different species and virulence can evolve following cross-species transmission events. This report describes the detection of three cases of avirulent APMV-1 infection in Great Britain (GB). Case 1 emerged from the ‘testing to exclude’ scheme in chickens in Shropshire while cases 2 and 3 were made directly from notifiable avian disease investigations in chicken broilers in Herefordshire and on premises in Wiltshire containing ducks and mixed species, respectively). Class II/genotype I.1.1 APMV-1 from case 1 shared 99.94% identity to the Queensland V4 strain of APMV-1. Class II/genotype II APMV-1 was detected from case 2 while the class II/genotype I.2 virus from case 3 aligned closely with strains isolated from Anseriformes. Exclusion of ND through rapid detection of avirulent APMV-1 is important where clinical signs caused by avirulent or virulent APMV-1s could be ambiguous. Understanding the diversity of APMV-1s circulating in GB is critical to understanding disease threat from these adaptable viruses.
The 2016–17 European outbreak of H5N8 HPAIV (Clade 18.104.22.168b) affected a wider range of avian species than the previous H5N8 outbreak (2014–15), including an incursion of H5N8 HPAIV into gamebirds in England. Natural infection of captive-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) led to variable disease presentation; clinical signs included ruffled feathers, reluctance to move, bright green faeces, and/or sudden mortality. Several birds exhibited neurological signs (nystagmus, torticollis, ataxia). Birds exhibiting even mild clinical signs maintained substantial levels of virus replication and shedding, with preferential shedding via the oropharyngeal route. Gross pathology was consistent with HPAIV, in gallinaceous species but diphtheroid plaques in oropharyngeal mucosa associated with necrotising stomatitis were novel but consistent findings. However, minimal or modest microscopic pathological lesions were detected despite the systemic dissemination of the virus. Serology results indicated differences in the timeframe of exposure for each case (n = 3). This supported epidemiological conclusions confirming that the movement of birds between sites and other standard husbandry practices with limited hygiene involved in pheasant rearing (including several fomite pathways) contributed to virus spread between premises.
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic absorbers frequently develop Ga gradients during growth. These gradients vary as a function of growth recipe, and are important to device performance. Prediction of Ga profiles using classic diffusion equations is not possible because In and Ga atoms occupy the same lattice sites and thus diffuse interdependently, and there is not yet a detailed experimental knowledge of the chemical potential as a function of composition that describes this interaction. We show how diffusion equations can be modified to account for site sharing between In and Ga atoms. The analysis has been implemented in an Excel spreadsheet, and outputs predicted Cu, In, and Ga profiles for entered deposition recipes. A single set of diffusion coefficients and activation energies are chosen, such that simulated elemental profiles track with published data and those from this study. Extent and limits of agreement between elemental profiles predicted from the growth recipes and the spreadsheet tool are demonstrated.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.