To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The capacity to learn and remember exists in most known animal species, which raises fascinating questions about the role of evolutionary processes. Logic suggests that processing and storing information for future use is likely to be fundamental for an animal’s survival and reproductive success. Foraging for food requires capacities to respond to cues that signal its availability and location, and store memories for future excursions; successful reproduction requires capacities to locate and choose a suitable mate; and, evading predators requires learning about and remembering cues associated with survival threats, such as the presence and location of predators; all of these capacities, either directly or indirectly, enhance reproductive success. Although logical deduction plays an important role in science, empirical tests are needed to confirm, in this case, evolutionary hypotheses about learning and memory. This book is about the ways in which evolutionary hypotheses inform the design of experiments on learning and memory, the empirical methods and tests that have been developed, and the knowledge derived from research programs that reveal relationships between learning, memory, and evolution. The contributors to each chapter provide unique insights into how evolution has influenced a broad array of learning and memory mechanisms across a diverse representation of invertebrate and vertebrate species.
Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms is an exploration of laboratory and field research on the many ways that evolution has influenced learning and memory processes, such as associative learning, social learning, and spatial, working, and episodic memory systems. This volume features research by both outstanding early-career scientists as well as familiar luminaries in the field. Learning and memory in a broad range of animals are explored, including numerous species of invertebrates (insects, worms, sea hares), as well as fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, bears, and human and nonhuman primates. Contributors discuss how the behavioral, cognitive, and neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been influenced by evolutionary pressures. They also draw connections between learning and memory and the specific selective factors that shaped their evolution. Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms should be a valuable resource for those working in the areas of experimental and comparative psychology, comparative cognition, brain–behavior evolution, and animal behavior.
To identify dietary self-monitoring implementation strategies in behavioural weight loss interventions.
We conducted a systematic review of eight databases and examined fifty-nine weight loss intervention studies targeting adults with overweight/obesity that used dietary self-monitoring.
We identified self-monitoring implementation characteristics, effectiveness of interventions in supporting weight loss and examined weight loss outcomes among higher and lower intensity dietary self-monitoring protocols. Included studies utilised diverse self-monitoring formats (paper, website, mobile app, phone) and intensity levels (recording all intake or only certain aspects of diet). We found the majority of studies using high- and low-intensity self-monitoring strategies demonstrated statistically significant weight loss in intervention groups compared with control groups.
Based on our findings, lower and higher intensity dietary self-monitoring may support weight loss, but variability in adherence measures and limited analysis of weight loss relative to self-monitoring usage limits our understanding of how these methods compare with each other.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
The diagnosis of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in a medical officer working in a metropolitan Australian neonatal intensive care unit led to a contact investigation involving 125 neonates, 165 relatives, and 122 healthcare workers with varying degrees of exposure. There was no evidence of nosocomial tuberculosis transmission from the index case.
Three hypotheses concerning negative social interaction in later life were evaluated in this study. First, it was predicted that greater personal economic difficulty is associated with more frequent negative social interaction with social network members in general. Secondly, it was proposed that more frequent negative social interaction exacerbates the undesirable effect of personal financial strain on change in self-rated health during late life. Thirdly, an effort was made to see if some types of negative social interaction, but not others, accentuate the undesirable effects of personal economic problems on self-rated health. Data from two nationwide longitudinal surveys that were conducted in the United States revealed that greater personal financial difficulty is associated with more interpersonal conflict. The findings further indicate that the undesirable effects of personal economic difficulty on change in self-rated health are more pronounced at progressively higher levels of negative social interaction. Finally, the data suggest that one form of negative social interaction (not getting help when it is expected) is more likely to intensify the unwanted effects of personal financial strain on self-rated health than other types of negative social interaction.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.