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Patient safety organizations and researchers describe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) as a largely preventable hospital-acquired infection that affects patient safety and quality of care. We provide evidence regarding the consequences of HAP among 2019 Medicare beneficiaries.
Retrospective case–control study.
Calendar year 2019 Medicare beneficiaries with HAP during an initial hospitalization, defined by International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding on inpatient claims (n = 2,457). Beneficiaries with HAP were matched using diagnosis-related group (DRG) codes with beneficiaries who did not experience HAP (n = 2,457).
The 2019 calendar year Medicare 5% Standard Analytic Files (SAF), for inpatient, outpatient, physician, and all postacute hospital settings. The case group (HAP) and control group (non-HAP) were matched on disease severity, age, sex, and race and were compared for hospital length of stay, costs, and mortality during the initial hospitalization and across settings for 30, 60, and 90 days after discharge. The 2019 fiscal year MedPAR Claims data were used to determine Medicare costs.
Medicare beneficiaries with HAP were 2.8 times more likely to die within 90 days compared with matched beneficiaries who did not develop HAP. Among those who survived, beneficiaries with HAP spent 6.6 more days in the hospital (69%) and cost the Medicare program an average of $14,487 (24%) more per episode of care across initial inpatient and postdischarge services.
The findings of higher mortality and cost among Medicare beneficiaries who develop HAP suggest that HAP prevention should be prioritized as a patient safety and quality initiative for the Medicare program.
In this 2019 cross-sectional study, we analyzed hospital records for Medicaid beneficiaries who acquired nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia. The results suggest that preventive dental treatment in the 12 months prior or periodontal therapy in the 6 months prior to a hospitalization is associated with a reduced risk of NVHAP.
In 2020 a group of U.S. healthcare leaders formed the National Organization to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (NOHAP) to issue a call to action to address non–ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NVHAP). NVHAP is one of the most common and morbid healthcare-associated infections, but it is not tracked, reported, or actively prevented by most hospitals. This national call to action includes (1) launching a national healthcare conversation about NVHAP prevention; (2) adding NVHAP prevention measures to education for patients, healthcare professionals, and students; (3) challenging healthcare systems and insurers to implement and support NVHAP prevention; and (4) encouraging researchers to develop new strategies for NVHAP surveillance and prevention. The purpose of this document is to outline research needs to support the NVHAP call to action. Primary needs include the development of better models to estimate the economic cost of NVHAP, to elucidate the pathophysiology of NVHAP and identify the most promising pathways for prevention, to develop objective and efficient surveillance methods to track NVHAP, to rigorously test the impact of prevention strategies proposed to prevent NVHAP, and to identify the policy levers that will best engage hospitals in NVHAP surveillance and prevention. A joint task force developed this document including stakeholders from the Veterans’ Health Administration (VHA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), The Joint Commission, the American Dental Association, the Patient Safety Movement Foundation, Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice (OHNEP), Teaching Oral-Systemic Health (TOSH), industry partners and academia.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
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