To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Nudge interventions aim at changing people's behaviour by altering the choice architecture of environments. Workplaces provide an appropriate setting for these interventions, since the majority of adults make a remarkable proportion of daily dietary choices there. Using the baseline data of a choice architectural “StopDia at Work” study, we here aim to identify differences in diet quality between various employee groups.
Altogether 1205 employees of 16 Finnish employers answered an anonymous questionnaire comprising items on: 1) work quality (how the employee mainly works: seated, standing or moving a little, moving), 2) habitual eating location (staff restaurant, other restaurant, recreation room/own workstation/etc. place at the workplace, elsewhere), and 3) consumption of vegetables/fruit/berries, unseasoned nuts/almonds/seeds, foods high in salt and fat, foods high in sugar and fat, and water during working hours. A diet quality score was computed based on foods consumed at work. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to assess differences in dietary patterns.
Forty-eight percent of respondents worked mainly seated, 27% by standing or moving a little, and 24% by moving. Twenty-four percent typically ate their main meal in a staff restaurant, 5% in a restaurant outside the workplace, and 67% in a recreation room/own workstation/etc. place at the workplace. Vegetable intake differed depending on work quality (χ2(2) = 25.450, p < 0.001) and eating location (χ2(3) = 27.511, p < 0.001), being the highest among employees working seated, and employees eating in a staff restaurant. Consumption of foods high in salt and fat differed according to work quality (χ2(2) = 22.715, p < 0.001), employees with physical work reporting higher intakes compared to employees working seated (p < 0.001). Consumption of nuts/almonds/seeds, foods high in sugar and fat, and water did not differ between employee groups. Diet quality scores differed depending on work quality (χ2(2) = 22.153, p < 0.001), employees working seated, standing or moving a little scoring higher than employees with physical work (p < 0.01).
Employees with physical work had poorer diet quality than employees with sedentary work. As nudge interventions are assumed to influence behaviour independent of individual's background, they thus provide a potential approach to target also employees with physical work. Consumption of vegetables was lower among employees not eating in a staff restaurant. Therefore, nudge interventions aimed at increasing vegetable intake should be designed also to other workplace settings than staff restaurants, the predominant study setting thus far.
The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26·5 (sem 6·9) years and BMI 21·9 (sem 2·0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0·05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.
To explore how the quality of school lunch consumed reflected overall eating patterns in school-aged children.
Children filled in an Internet-based questionnaire about their eating patterns. The children were then divided into balanced and imbalanced school lunch eaters on the basis of their responses in the questionnaire. A balanced school lunch consisted of, by the definition used in the present study, a main dish, salad and bread.
Eleven primary schools and one middle school in eastern Finland.
A total of 531 schoolchildren (247 boys and 284 girls) aged 11–16 years.
The school lunch was balanced in 46·5 % of children. Eating a balanced school lunch was associated with overall healthier eating patterns outside school. Children who ate a balanced school lunch had more regular meal times and consumed healthier snacks. They ate fruit or berries and vegetables, dairy products and wholegrain foods more often, consumed fewer salty snacks, pizzas, meat pies and drank fewer soft drinks and energy drinks. Their eating patterns at home were also healthier, with vegetables being offered at every family dinner and fruit being offered daily, whereas soft drinks were offered seldom.
The choices made by children in their school lunch reflect the overall eating patterns among school-aged children. Eating a balanced school lunch is associated with more regular meal patterns, the availability of healthier foods at home and an overall healthier diet, suggesting that healthy eating patterns are learnt at home.
Physico-chemical and textural properties of foods in addition to their chemical composition modify postprandial metabolism and signals from the gastrointestinal tract. Enzymatic cross-linking of protein is a tool to modify food texture and structure without changing nutritional composition. We investigated the effects of structure modification of a milk protein-based model food and the type of milk protein used on postprandial hormonal, metabolic and appetitive responses. Healthy males (n 8) consumed an isoenergetic and isovolumic test product containing either whey protein (Wh, low-viscous liquid), casein (Cas, high-viscous liquid) or Cas protein cross-linked with transglutaminase (Cas-TG, rigid gel) in a randomised order. Blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY analysis for 4 h. Appetite was assessed at concomitant time points. Cas and Wh were more potent in lowering postprandial glucose than Cas-TG during the first hour. Insulin concentrations peaked at 30 min, but the peaks were more pronounced for Cas and Wh than for Cas-TG. The increase in CCK was similar for Cas and Wh in the first 15 min, whereas for Cas-TG, the CCK release was significantly lower, but more sustained. The feeling of fullness was stronger after the consumption of Cas-TG than after the consumption of Cas and Wh. The present results suggest that food structure is more effective in modulating the postprandial responses than the type of dairy protein used. Modification of protein-based food structure could thus offer a possible tool for lowering postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations and enhancing postprandial fullness.
Manufacturing of healthy whole-grain foods demands knowledge of process-induced changes in macro-, micro- and non-nutrients. The high content of dietary fibre is a challenge in relation to good product texture and sensory quality. The stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds have a marked influence on the health effects of cereal foods. It was confirmed that sterols, folates, tocopherols and tocotrienols, alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids and total phenolics are concentrated in the bran layers of the rye grain, and are only present at low levels in the flour endosperm. The levels of folate and easily-extractable phenolic compounds increase in germination and sourdough baking, but there are negligible changes in the levels of sterols, lignans and alk(en)ylresorcinols. The levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols are reduced during the sourdough fermentation. In conclusion, many of the bioactive compounds in whole-grain rye are stable during food processing, and their levels can even be increased with suitable processing.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
Rye is an important source of plant lignans in Finland. In the present crossover trial we wanted to study the effect of rye bread as part of the usual diet on serum and urine enterolactone (ENL) concentrations in healthy volunteers. Eighteen men aged 43 (SEM 2·0) YEARS AND TWENTY-ONE WOMEN AGED 43 (sem 1·6) years consumed wholemeal rye bread and white wheat bread in random order for 4 weeks. The bread periods were separated by a 4 week wash-out period. The breads provided at least 20 % of the daily energy intake. The mean intakes of rye bread were 219 (sem 14·6) and 162 (sem 5·3) g/d and those of wheat bread were 200 (sem 9·6) and 153 (sem 5·8) g/d for men and women respectively. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and three 24 h urine samples were collected from ten men and twelve women at the end of both bread periods for the determination of serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL. The mean serum ENL concentrations in both men and women at the beginning of baseline period and at the end of the rye-bread period remained constant and were significantly higher than those at the end of the wheat-bread period. Correspondingly, daily urinary ENL excretion increased significantly during the rye-bread period compared with the wheat-bread period and was 5- and 10-fold higher in men and women respectively in comparison with the amount of plant lignan precursors measured in the rye bread. These data indicate the presence of other precursors for ENL in rye which are not detected by the current method of measuring plant lignans in food. The possible role of fibre in enhancement of the formation of mammalian lignans from their plant precursors in the gut also remains to be determined.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.