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Recent scholarship shows that eligible voters in neighborhoods home to many arrested and incarcerated individuals vote at lower rates than those in less-affected neighborhoods. Little work, however, has investigated how this turnout gap might be counteracted. This paper uses Amendment Four, a 2018 Florida ballot initiative that promised to re-enfranchise most individuals whose voting rights had been revoked due to a felony conviction to investigate whether this turnout disparity can be narrowed by a ballot initiative of particular significance to communities most affected by incarceration. Using prison release records, I identify the neighborhoods and households where formerly incarcerated individuals live and assess the voting history of their neighbors and housemates. I find no evidence that Amendment Four increased these voters’ turnout in 2018 relative to other voters. While ending felony disenfranchisement is necessary, closing the turnout gap resulting from histories of policing and incarceration will require greater investment and engagement.
This chapter highlights key aspects of management and potential complications in children following cardiac surgery. Critical to this is an understanding of diagnosis, physiology, appropriate physiological targets and multidisciplinary collaboration.
It is not unusual for the cardiac anaesthetist to encounter adults with palliated, corrected or newly diagnosed congenital heart disease (CHD). It is essential, therefore, that the anaesthetist has an appreciation of the types of CHD, surgical procedures and perioperative management.
How should thought and consciousness be understood within a view of the world as being through-and-through physical? Many philosophers have proposed non-reductive, levels-based positions, according to which the physical domain is fundamental, while thought and consciousness are higher-level processes, dependent on and determined by physical processes. In this book, Kevin Morris's careful philosophical and historical critique shows that it is very difficult to make good metaphysical sense of this idea - notions like supervenience, physical realization, and grounding all fail to articulate a viable non-reductive, levels-based physicalism. Challenging assumptions about the mind-body problem and providing new perspectives on the debate over physicalism, this accessible and comprehensive book will interest scholars working in metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of science.
Avian trichomonosis is an architypal disease of wild columbids and those birds that predate them. Increasingly though, it has been reported in passerines; a recent and ongoing epidemic in the chaffinches and greenfinches of Europe and outbreaks amongst house finches, American goldfinches and purple finches in North America. The parasite, Trichomonas gallinae, causes lesions in the upper respiratory tract which can cause mortality associated with dehydration and emaciation. This paper reports for the first time, the widespread, endemic and often asymptomatic infection of common mynah (Acridotheres tristis) around the Faisalabad District, Pakistan. Parasite typing was used to investigate the potential for transmission among the frequently sympatric species. Type C parasites were found in mynah, and while this is analagous to the pandemic finch strain which is Type A, it is the first known example of passerine infections of this parasite genotype. Subtype analysis showed the strain to be C4 a subtype which has a widespread distribution in columbids.
Experimental observations of the flow of a suspension of solid fraction
over a circular cylindrical post in a shallow microchannel (depth smaller than the cylinder radius) find that the recirculating wake behind the obstacle at moderate Reynolds numbers is depleted or devoid of particles. Particles injected into the wake exit to regain the depleted state. By numerical simulation of the discrete particle motion, the basis for the depletion behind the cylinder is studied; rather than a shallow channel, the numerical simulations consider a periodic domain, mimicking the flow past an infinite cylinder. The Reynolds number is defined, using the average axial velocity
, diameter of the obstacle
and the kinematic viscosity of the suspension
, and is studied for
in the simulation – conditions for which the pure fluid exhibits an extended steady closed-streamline (recirculating) wake behind the cylinder; unsteadiness is found to be suppressed by the channel walls in the experiments, allowing steady flow at a larger
than expected for an infinite cylinder (up to at least
). The simulations use the lattice-Boltzmann method to determine the motion of the fluid and neutrally buoyant particles. The trajectory of a single particle (small relative to the cylinder) shows migration to a limit cycle inside the wake. With an increase of the number of particles in the wake alone (no particles in the free stream), particles can escape the wake due to velocity fluctuations. Simulation of the flow of suspensions of
and 0.08 demonstrates that there is particle exchange between the wake and the free stream; the net flux of particles out of the wake leads to a particle-depleted wake, qualitatively very similar to the experimental observation.