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Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.
To evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs’ model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233).
Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews. Ten control CRTs received no additional support. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction, measured by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8), completed by 15 patients per team at CRT discharge (n = 375). Secondary outcomes: CRT model fidelity, continuity of care, staff well-being, in-patient admissions and bed use and CRT readmissions were also evaluated.
All CRTs were retained in the trial. Median follow-up CSQ-8 score was 28 in each group: the adjusted average in the intervention group was higher than in the control group by 0.97 (95% CI −1.02 to 2.97) but this was not significant (P = 0.34). There were fewer in-patient admissions, lower in-patient bed use and better staff psychological health in intervention teams. Model fidelity rose in most intervention teams and was significantly higher than in control teams at follow-up. There were no significant effects for other outcomes.
The CRT service improvement programme did not achieve its primary aim of improving patient satisfaction. It showed some promise in improving CRT model fidelity and reducing acute in-patient admissions.
Background: Psychological therapy services are often required to demonstrate their effectiveness and are implementing systematic monitoring of patient progress. A system for measuring patient progress might usefully ‘inform supervision’ and help patients who are not progressing in therapy. Aims: To examine if continuous monitoring of patient progress through the supervision process was more effective in improving patient outcomes compared with giving feedback to therapists alone in routine NHS psychological therapy. Method: Using a stepped wedge randomized controlled design, continuous feedback on patient progress during therapy was given either to the therapist and supervisor to be discussed in clinical supervison (MeMOS condition) or only given to the therapist (S-Sup condition). If a patient failed to progress in the MeMOS condition, an alert was triggered and sent to both the therapist and supervisor. Outcome measures were completed at beginning of therapy, end of therapy and at 6-month follow-up and session-by-session ratings. Results: No differences in clinical outcomes of patients were found between MeMOS and S-Sup conditions. Patients in the MeMOS condition were rated as improving less, and more ill. They received fewer therapy sessions. Conclusions: Most patients failed to improve in therapy at some point. Patients’ recovery was not affected by feeding back outcomes into the supervision process. Therapists rated patients in the S-Sup condition as improving more and being less ill than patients in MeMOS. Those patients in MeMOS had more complex problems.
To assess the feasibility of conducting a larger, definitive randomised controlled trial of manual-assisted cognitive therapy (MACT), a brief focused therapy to address self-harm and promote engagement in services. We established recruitment, randomisation and assessment of outcome within a sample of these complex patients admitted to a general hospital following self-harm. We assessed symptoms of depressed mood, anxiety and suicidality at baseline and at 3 months' follow-up.
Twenty patients were randomised to the trial following an index episode of self-harm, and those allocated to MACT demonstrated improvement in anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation.
It is feasible to recruit a sample of these complex patients to a randomised controlled trial of MACT following an index episode of self-harm. There is preliminary support that MACT could be an acceptable and effective intervention in patients with personality disorder and substance misuse.
This chapter examines the sociology from several perspectives: basic concepts of ageing, a brief history of social gerontology, the interaction between gender and ageing, sexuality and ageing, and ethnicity and ageing.
As has been discussed in other chapters of this volume, the ageing experience involves the intersection of biological, psychological and social processes. This chapter examines in more detail the last of these phenomena; that is, ageing from a sociological perspective. First, I will outline the development of social gerontology since the middle of the twentieth century. Examples will be taken from several countries but principally the UK, and unless otherwise stated, reference to the UK is intended. Then I will discuss how these early theoretical concepts were widened to accommodate greater diversity among the heterogeneous ageing populations including gender, sexuality and ethnicity. Finally, I will discuss some challenges for the future and how they might enhance our understanding of growing old in the twenty-first century.
Ageing is a sociologically interesting phenomenon because although it is a virtually universal experience – almost all of us will get old before we die – it occurs within very diverse and complex social and power dynamic contexts, including socio-economic grouping, health status, access to financial resources, gender, ethnicity and geographical location. It is paradoxical that, on the one hand, we congratulate ourselves that in our society more people live longer than at any other time in history, but on the other hand, old people are demonized for the caring and/or financial burden they impose on their family, the community and the state.
Background: Manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy (MCBT) approaches to treating adolescent anxiety and depression have been shown to be effective in recent years, as have MCBT for adult self-harm (SH). Aims: This paper describes the rationale for, development and pilot evaluation of the efficacy of a novel manualized CBT package for adolescent self-harm (SH). It also addresses the acceptability of this treatment package to therapists and patients. Method: Twenty-five adolescents (aged 12–18 years) presenting to a Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) in Greater London with SH behaviour began the “Cutting Down” programme and 16 (64%) completed the treatment. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment and at 3 month follow up. Results: Significant reductions in self-harm behaviour, depression symptoms and trait anxiety were reported. There was no change in state anxiety or in levels of parental expressed emotion as perceived by the adolescent. Conclusion: These pilot findings provide preliminary support for the efficacy and acceptability of this time-limited CBT package for adolescents who self-harm.
Longer-term follow-up of patients with borderline personality disorder have found favourable clinical outcomes, with long-term reduction in symptoms and diagnosis.
We examined the 6-year outcome of patients with borderline personality disorder who were randomised to 1 year of cognitive–behavioural therapy for personality disorders (CBT–PD) or treatment as usual (TAU) in the BOSCOT trial, in three centres across the UK (trial registration: ISRCTN86177428).
In total, 106 participants met criteria for borderline personality disorder in the original trial. Patients were interviewed at follow-up by research assistants masked to the patient's original treatment group, CBT–PD or TAU, using the same measures as in the original randomised trial. Statistical analyses of data for the group as a whole are based on generalised linear models with repeated measures analysis of variance type models to examine group differences.
Follow-up data were obtained for 82% of patients at 6 years. Over half the patients meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder at entry into the study no longer did so 6 years later. The gains of CBT–PD over TAU in reduction of suicidal behaviour seen after 1-year follow-up were maintained. Length of hospitalisation and cost of services were lower in the CBT–PD group compared with the TAU group.
Although the use of CBT–PD did not demonstrate a statistically significant cost-effective advantage, the findings indicate the potential for continued long-term cost-offsets that accrue following the initial provision of 1 year of CBT–PD. However, the quality of life and affective disturbance remained poor.
This article focuses on mental health assessment of refugees in clinical, educational and administrative-legal settings in order to synthesise research and practice designed to enhance and promote further development of culturally appropriate clinical assessment services during the refugee resettlement process. It specifically surveys research published over the last 25 years into the development, reliability measurement and validity testing of assessment instruments, which have been used with children, adolescents and adults from refugee backgrounds, prior to or following their arrival in a resettlement country, to determine whether the instruments meet established crosscultural standards of conceptual, functional, linguistic, technical and normative equivalence. The findings suggest that, although attempts have been made to develop internally reliable, appropriately normed tests for use with refugees from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, matters of conceptual and linguistic equivalence and test–retest reliability are often overlooked. Implications of these oversights for underreporting refugees' mental health needs are considered. Efforts should also be directed towards development of culturally comparable, valid and reliable measures of refugee children's mental health and of refugee children's and adults' psychoeducational, neuropsychological and applied memory capabilities.
Therapists differ in their effectiveness in the delivery of psychological therapy. Can trainees who are exposed to similar training in psychological therapy achieve the same standard of competence regardless of professional background? This is a timely question given the planned expansion of psychological therapists to treat common mental disorders in England and Wales and the Scottish initiative to increase access to psychological therapies.
This article investigates the influence of partnership status on older men's involvement in social organisations, drawing on qualitative research. Men are found to be highly resistant to participation in organisations that cater primarily for the needs of older people. Older divorced and never-married men are more susceptible to social isolation and poor health than married men. This could be ameliorated by membership of such establishments, yet their resistance is the greatest. Policy implications focus on identifying and responding to appropriate provision of organisational and communal activities for ageing men, particularly those who spend their later years without a partner.
This paper considers a dimension of social life that has been largely neglected in the research literature on ageing, older men's involvement with informal associations. These affiliations represent an under-valued resource which may contribute to the quality of life of older men by facilitating social interaction and providing a context for continued social productivity. Using the British Household Panel Survey for 1999, we explore the engagement of men aged 65 or more years with civic groups (such as political parties or voluntary agencies), religious organisations, and sports and social clubs. Involvement in civic and religious groups and sports clubs is common among middle class older men, while social club membership is common among working class men. Only a small amount of these differences can be explained by variations in health, income and access to private transport. Compared with partnered older men, widowers are more likely to be involved with sports and social clubs, while men who are divorced or never married are less likely to be a member of any informal group.