As part of the country-driven strategy for the management of animal genetic resources, FAO invited 188 countries to participate in the preparation of the First Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources. Utilizing the information provided in the 148 country reports ready for analysis in July 2005, this paper presents a global overview of the state of capacity and utilization of reproductive and molecular biotechnologies in the management of animal genetic resources. Regional descriptions outline the distribution of different biotechnologies, along with a discussion of the species and breed focus of their use, and stakeholder involvement in service delivery. Unsurprisingly, there is a big gap in biotechnology use between developed and developing countries, with artificial insemination being the technology most widely applied in developing countries. More complex technologies such as embryo transfer and molecular tools, are even less common in developing countries. Use of biotechnologies is in general biased towards cattle, and examples of the application of biotechnologies in the management of locally adapted breeds are limited. Most developing countries express the wish to increase the utilization of biotechnologies. However, in many cases clear plans for incorporating technologies into animal genetic resource management are lacking.